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What do we do in aging dogs?
- Decrease energy, fat, phosphorous and fiber
- increase protein
Describe how the energy requirements increase during gestation and lactation?
- Increased energy and nutrients from week 5 of gestation
- A large increase in energy and nutrients during lactation
How are working dog muscles adapted?
- They are adapted to use more fat
- Most muscle fibers are highly oxidative
How do the requirements of working dogs vary from other dogs?
Working dogs have higher requirement for energy, but also protein, minerals and vitamins
Describe the nutrient requirement of working dogs. What is the rule of thumb?
- Requirement= maintenance + exercise
- Rule of thumb: 1.5-2 x MER of adult dog maintenance
How does water requirement of working dogs change? name two breeds in particular and what changes
- Sled dogs: water increases from 1L/d to 5L/d during races
- Greyhounds: dehydration before the race, and cold bath and water immediately after
Describe the change in energy requirements in sled dogs.
In a thermo neutral environment, sled dogs have the same energy requirements (to stay warm).
What is energy for movement proportional to in working dogs?
Distance traveled, rather than speed.
What would be consequences if coprophagy is prevent in rodent and rabbits?
- Reduced growth
- Deficiency of vitamin B12
Which vitamins are not essential for dogs? For cats?
- Dogs do not require Vitamin K, Vitamin C or Niacin
- Cats do not require Vitamin K or Vitamin C
How do nutrient requirements change for sled and racing dogs?
- Sled dogs require higher protein (30-40% of energy) and a high fat (more than 50% of energy). Less mineral and vitamin per unit because of higher food intake. Higher level of antioxidant vitamins (E,C)
- Racing dogs require moderately high fat and moderate protein in diet (30-50) and (24%)
What has a higher metabolic rate, sled dogs or racing dogs.
What are the five routes of water loss in an animal? Which is the largest?
- Urine (Largest)
- Feces (Second largest)
What are the four functions of dietary water?
- Solvent in which substances are dissolved and transported
- Necessary for chemical reactions that involve hydrolysis
- Regulation of body temperature
- Provides shape and resilience to body
What regulates body water?
Neural and endocrine systems
What is dehydration?
- Lack of water in body tissue
- More than 1% loss is when thirst drive kicks in
- 5-10% water loss in cells could result in death
What is hydremia
- Hydremia is also known as water intoxication
- It can be seen in young animals that consumer a large amount of water in a short period of time
- Or after dehydration
What are the six key points involved in vitamin definition?
- Required in very small amounts
- Not metabolic fuels or structural
- Involved in fundamental functions of the body
- Regulators of reactions (catalysts)
- Absence must cause a deficiency syndrome
- Not synthesized in sufficient quantities to support normal physiologic function
How many vitamins do humans need? How does this change in cats and dogs?
- 10 water-soluble and 4- fat-soluble
- Dogs require 8 and 3, cats 9 and 4
Describe the interaction of vitamins
- Critical pathways require concerted action of several B- complex vitamins (deficiency of 1 compromises efficiency of other 3)
- Multiple vitamin deficiencies more frequent than single vitamin deficiencies
Describe the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
- Requires bile salts and fat to form micelles
- Passively absorbed, mainly in Duodenum and ileum
Describe the absorption of water-soluble vitamins
- Active transport (sodium dependent, carrier mediated absorption pump)
- Some vitamins require a carrier protein called "intrinsic factor"
How do animals get dietary vitamins? What is a problem
- It is very hard to formulate a diet to meet vitamin requirements from ingredient source
- Fortify with vitamin premix
- Organ meat: rich in fat-soluble vitamins
- Meat, plants: vitamin b, a d and e
What is a provitamin
A compound that requires an activation step before it becomes biologically active
What is a vitamer? What is an example?
- Chemically the same compound as a vitamin
- May exert varying physiologic effects because it is an isomer.
- Vitamin E: A-tocopherol is the most biologically active form, y-tocopherol has little biological activity
What is a stereoisomer? Describe an example
- Differ in the arrangement of groups around stereocenters
- Vitam E: some isomers are more active than others (RRR-a-tocopherol)
What are vitamin-like substances
Provide an example
- Exhibit properties similar to vitamins
- Do not fit a strict definition of a vitamin
- Have physiologic functionality, but questionable essentiality
- L-carnitine is an example. Transport of long-chain fatty acids across mitochondrial membrane, its synthesis is a rate-limiting step.
What are minerals, and how many essential minerals are there? What are the three categories
- Inorganic elemental atoms that are essential nutrients
- There are more than 18 mineral elements essential for mammals
- The three groups are Macro Minerals, Trace elements and Ultra-trace elements
What are the 7 macrominerals?
Ca, P, K, Na, Cl, Mg, S
What are the three functions of minerals?
- Structural components of body organs and tissues
- Constituents of body fluids and tissues (electrolytes)
- Catalysts/cofactors in enzyme and hormone systems
What is the function of minerals in body fluid and tissues?
- Maintenance of osmotic pressure
- acid-base balance
- muscle contraction
- membrane permeability
- tissue irritability
Describe mineral homeostasis
- Specific concentrations for optimal growth, health and fertility
- Homeostatic regulations: Maintaining of mineral concentrations at active sites in narrow physiologic limits despite over-or under ingestion, control of intestinal absorption and excretion,
- urinary excretion
What are the factors influencing mineral bioavailability (5). Do meats or plants yield more bioavailable minerals?
- Chemical form
- other dietary components that interact metabolically
- age, gender and species of animal
- intake of mineral and the need (body stores)
- environmental factors
Meat-derived minerals are more available plant-derived minerals
What are good sources of trace elements?
Sulfate, chloride> carbonates> oxides
Are organic or inorganic minerals more available? Why
Organic minerals (maybe because the mineral is complexed or bound
How does gluconeogenesis vary between a cat and an omnivore (dog)? Why?
- Gluconeogenesis in cats is constant, it is increased after a meal while in dogs it occurs after the post-absorptive state.
- Likely occurs all the time in cats because they eat lots of small meals, and constantly convert aa's into glucose as they do not consumer glucose
Describe how cats have a non-adaptive carbohydrate intake
- They have a minimal adaptation of a-amylase use
- Non-adaptive brush border enzymes for disaccharidase
- Sugar transport is non-adaptive
What do cats rely on to sustain blood glucose concentration?
Describe the hepatic energy metabolism in cats
- Minimal glucokinase activity (glucose to glucose 6-phosphate in liver)
- Normal hexokinase activity (glucose to glucose-6 phosphate in tissues)
- Lack of fructokinase
Describe the protein metabolism in cats? What is a consideration regarding metabolism
- It is unique
- Unusually high maintenance requirement for protein (2 times higher than in adult dogs, 50% higher in young)
- Not due to specific aa requirement, but due to high aa turnover: deaminated to keto acids for energy and gluconeogenesis
- Cats cannot decrease activity of hepatic enzymes when fed low protein diets
How does the urea cycle vary between cats and dogs?
- In cats it is non-adaptive to dietary protein level because of high protein requirements. Highly efficient at detoxification of nitrogen wastes
- In omnivores, it is adaptive to dietary nitrogen levels and an adaptation period is required for high protein diets after fasting
What is the key intermediate in the urea cycle? what is the dietary precursor?
The key intermediate in the urea cycle is ornithine and the dietary precursor is arginine
What happens with cats during fasting or a reduced protein intake?
- Urea cycle intermediates become depleted and cycle slows.
- With protein meal, intermediates replenish and the cycle continues at an efficient rate
Describe arginine-deficiency and why it is particularly problematic in cats.
- As arginine is the precursor to the urea cycle, there is a build up of ammonia as it cannon be converted to urea. There is an ammonia toxicity.
- Hyperammonia in less than an hour, and death within 2-5 hours
- Cats cannot produce arginine from ornithine and citrulline
What is taurine and why is it required in cat diets?
- It is a B-amino sulfonic acid
- Functions: Bile salt synthesis, important for normal retinal, cardiac, neurologic, reproductive, immune and platelet function
- Feline liver has limited capacity to synthesize taurine
Why is there a loss in taurine in the cat diet? What does it become, and what is it available for
- Most bile salts return into intestine for return to liver
- Microbial degradation accounts for deconjugation and wasting of free taurine
- Deconjugated taurine is available for intestinal uptake, fecal excretion and degradation by microbes
What are the deficiency symptoms of taurine?
- Feline central retinal degeneration
- Reproductive failure and impaired fetal development
- Feline dilated cardiomyopathq
How do methionine and cysteine requirements vary in cats?
- They are required in higher amounts than most other species (particularly during growth)
- Cysteine can provide about half of need for sulfur AA's
- Methionine is the first limiting amino acid in many foodstuffs (high in flesh, low in veg)
What is the main form of stored energy? Where are the major storage depots?
- Triglycerides are the main form of stored energy
- Fat depots are under skin, around organs and in intestinal membranes
What do cats require for fat metabolism? What is unique about cat fat metabolism
- Cats have the ability to digest and use high levels of fat.
- They have a special need for arachiodonic acid because they cannot synthesize it from linoleic acid.
What are symptoms of arachidonic deficiency in cats
- Reproductive disorders
- poor coat
- slow growth
- impaired wound healing
- skin lesions
Which B vitamin do cats require and why?
- Cats cannot convert tryptophan to niacin.
- They posses all needed enzymes but the high activity of enzymes in catabolic pathways prevents niacin synthesis
Which two water-soluble vitamins do cats require?
- Vitamin A: provitamins cannot be converted to retinol (lack enzymes)
- Vitamin D
Describe how water requirements vary between cats and dogs. What mechanism is in place that allows for the difference
- Cats can survive on less water (adapted to desert)
- They can ignore minor levels of dehydration, up to 4-8% body water
- Compensate low water intake by highly concentrated urine
What are some risks associated with highly concentrated cat urine?
- Risk of Crystalluria or urolithiasis
- Feline lower urinary tract disease complex (FLUTD)
What are the feeding goals of a cat?
Maximization of health, longevity, prevention of disease and maintaining quality of life
How long do cats take to reach adulthood? How long do they live for? what is considered to be an old cat
- 10 to 12 months
- Cats can live over 20 years
- An older cat is considered to 7 or more
How is the water requirement of cats determined?
- Adjust water intake to DM/energy content of diet (increase protein causes increased water intake)
- Conserve total body water by forming highly concentrated urine
- Water requirements of cats varies with physiologic and environmental conditions
What is the water requirement of cats? What should be done
- Recommended 1 mL water per kcal ME
- Cats should have unlimited access to water (allow them to self-regulate)
What is the thermoneutral zone of cats
What is the most accurate interspecies mass exponent for cats?
- Not valid for lions and tigers
What is the daily energy requirement for adult cats at maintenance?
- 100 kcal ME x kg BW ^ 0.67
- Nutrient requirement = ME (kcal) x nutrient amount/1000 kcal ME
Describe the ideal body condition scoring of a cat
- Well proportioned
- waist observed behind ribs
- ribs palpable with slight fat covering
- abdominal fat pad minimal
Why are their limits of CHOs in cat diets?
Because they have a limited capacity to metabolize certain sugars. Toxicity can occur
What is the optimal starch inclusion level for the cat diet?
No known optimal starch inclusion level
What is the requirement of fiber in a cat diet? What types of cats will benefit from fiber?
- Less than 5%
- Enhances stool quality and promotes normal GIT function
- Cats with frequent hairballs may benefit from fiber
Why is meeting minimal protein requirements in cats?
Because there is a minimal capacity to adapt to low levels of dietary protein
Describe the endogenous urinary N excretion of cats
Cats support a higher N requirement however the efficiency of utilization of proteins in cats is lower because they lack the ability to conserve N and essential aa's
What are the essential fatty acids (for cats?)
- Linoleic acid
- y-linolenic acid
- arachiodonic acid
- a-linolenic acid
What is the function of fat in cat diets? (3)
- Absorption of fat-soluble vitamins
What is feline pansteatitis?
- Some cats are susceptible to deleterious effects of lipid oxidation
- body fat becomes inflamed (yellow fat disease)
- High levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids = high levels of vitamin E => prevents free radical or oxidative damage
What is the main storage site of Vitamin A? What in cats stores more Vitamin A than any other species?
- Liver is the main storage site
- The kidney of cats contains higher concentrations than any other species
When is calcium deficiency an issue in cats?
When cats eat unsupplemented meat
What is a larger issue, Phosphorous excess of deficiency? Why?
- Excess more problematic
- Lower urinary tract and renal disease
Which mineral is involved in preventing feline lower urinary tract disease? What levels should it be included in the diet
Mg concentration in cat food should be less than 1g/kg
What urinary pH predisposes the cat to feline lower urinary disease?
- A risk occurs when pH is under 6.5
- Cats can develop metabolic acidosis when pH is under 6.0
What type of feeding in cats is best for urinary pH control?
Free choice-feeding (modulates pH)
Meal-feeding causes a great alkaline peak, and has a higher average urinary pH (but can get more acidic)
At what age are cats more prone to age related diseases?
- 7-8 = old cat
- over 10 = very old cat
What are the gradual changes in behavior, physical and metabolism that occur in cats when they are older
- Less active
- Decreased lean body mass
- Decreased BMR
- Decrease in digestive function, immune response, glucose tolerance, renal function, smell, taste, perception etc.
What is the main goal of nutrition in older cats?
Improvement in quality and longevity of line
What is the nutritional modification to slow down aging in cats?
- Decrease caloric intake by 20-30%
- Adequate amounts of other nutrients
What varies with water requirements in older cats?
- They have an impaired thirst sensitivity and a decline in renal function (water requirements increase)
- Change from a dry to a moist food
How does the proportion of overweight and underweight cats change as the population ages?
- Energy requirements slightly decrease when old, slightly fewer obese cats because of less fat digestion
- In very old cats, weight loss is an issue. Need energy-dense diets because there is a significant reduction in fat digestibility
How do protein requirements change in older cats?
- There is a decrease in lean body mass as the cat ages, so the dietary protein should increase.
- Secondary benefits from protein in the diet: palatability
Describe the risk with obesity in cats?
Risk of death increases 3-fold in obese cats
Why is fiber more important in adult cats?
Because constipation is a common problem in older cats (decrease water intake)
Describe the change in Ca and P requirements as a cat ages
- Bone mass of cats declines after 7 years of age
- Include moderate levels of available dietary Ca to maintain bone mass
- Reduce dietary P levels because 30% of cats have kidney disease
30% of cats have what?
- Kidney disease
- Decrease dietary P
What is the safe urinary pH of cats?
What can be done in older cats to prevent metabolic acidosis?
Food with less acidifying potential
What are the three critical periods of a cats growing phase during the first 12 months of life?
- Nursing period
- Weaning period
- Postweaning period
What do kittens require the queen for? (4)
What might be a result of poor queen-kitten interaction?
Cannibalism or neglect
Describe the body temperature of nursing kittens? How is it controlled
- It is poorly regulated during the first 4 weeks of life
- Body temperature is higher than room temp (36 at birth, 37.5 at a week of age)
- queen maintains temperature and humidity of nest box artificially
- Humidity should be at 50 to prevent water loss
Describe kitten colostrum
- Produced during the first 24-72 hours
- provides nutrients and energy
- Low lactose level of around 3% (increases as milk matures)
- Protein and lipid levels decline from day 1 to 3
- Energy content declines from 1 to 3, but increases throughout lactation
Why do protein and lipid levels decline from day 1 to 3 in queen milk?
Reflect initial change in water content
How long after birth, does a kitten stop passively transfer immunoglobulins? What happens if kittens fail to consume colostrum
- At around 16 hours
- Kittens are immunologically compromised and susceptible to infections and sepsis
- Should receive colostrum within first 12 hours of birth
Describe the queens milk
- Complete food for nursing kittens
- Sufficient amounts of nutrients for normal growth and development (high levels of arginine and taurine)
What are non nutritive factors in a queens milk?
Increased food digestion, increased neonatal development, increased immune protection
Imunoglobulins and growth factors
What happens to the queen's milk as lactation progresses?
- Increased milk energy, protein, lactose, Ca and P levels
- Decreased Cu, Fe, and Mg
- Zn remains constant
What does a queen contain in her milk that a bitch does not?
A queen contains taurine and methionine
What can be monitored to indicate milk intake and health status in kittens?
What is the average birth weight of a kitten? what weight is associated with a high mortality?
How much weight should a kitten gain while it is nursing/week?
- Average weight: 100
- under 75 grams is associated with high mortality
- Weekly weight gain of kittens is around 100g/week
When are male kittens heavier than females? Why?
At around 6 weeks of age because they consumer larger quantities of food
What are the energy requirements of nursing kittens?
20-25kcal/100 g BW
Why is lactase activity high during the nursing period of kittens?
To break down the lactose in milk: cats are very efficient at digesting simple monosaccharides
What happens if a kitten is fed with cows milk? Why?
- Diarrhea, bloating, abdominal discomfort.
- Bacterial metabolism of undigested lactose in large intestine
What does passive local immunity prevent in kittens?
- Invasion of microbes into blood
Describe weaning in kittens
- Gradual process
- Starts 3-4 weeks of age
- At 6 weeks 30% of requirements met as solid food
- Completed 6-10 weeks
What is associated with later weaning in kittens?
Decreased kitten mortality in post weaning phase because of more immune system maturation
What does the small stomach size of the kitten require in the diet of the food in the weaning/post weaning phase?
Energy dense food
Describe how weaning in kittens is stressful
- Transition to independent feeding
- Greater environmental exposure
- no maternal antibodies
- increased morbidity and mortality in postweaning period
What diets should be offered to kittens during weaning?
Moist food with water or milk replacer. Should be highly digestible
At what age should kittens have learned to eat unmoistened food
6 to 8 weaks
Why are semi-moist foods bad for kittens during weaning?
May promote highly acid urinary pH (metabolic acidosis)
How does the feline attempt to deal with metabolic acidosis?
When growing/postweaning period in kittens?
8 weeks to 10-12 months
What is the energy requirement for growth of kittens after weaning
ME (kcal) = 100 x BWa0.67 + growth
What amino acid is required at higher levels in a growing kitten diet than in any other species?
Sulfur amino acids
What is the total protein inclusion rate in diets for kittens?
Describe the essential amino acid: total protein ratio in kittens?
High for all protein levels.
How does the fat requirement of growing kittens change? What does high fat intake predispose the kitten to?
- Growing requirements are higher than the adult cat
What type of acid is important for normal neural development in kittens? Where might a cat get DHA
- DHA: Docosahexenoic acid
- In milk or fish oil
Describe Ca deficiency in kittens
- Low calcium and high phosphorous
- Nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism
- Osteitis fibrosa (limping and reluctance to move)
- Kittens should get diet with normal Ca and P levels
- Extra Ca not recommended
Describe the pH of growing kittens? Why might there be a difference to adult urine pH?
- It is lower than adult pH
- Likely due to H+ released during bone formation
- Should not be fed food so that pH is lower than 6.2
What might be some negative effects of obesity during gestation in a queen? What must be done?
- Still births
- Obstructed labour
- The queen's weight MUST be corrected before pregnancy
What is the length of pregnancy of a bitch? queen?
Both 63 days!
Describe the weight gain in queens and bitches during gestation
Describe weight loss in ...
- Bitch: In last 4 weeks
- Queen: Linear weight gain from maturing to parturition
- Bitch: with giving birth
- Queen: Only 40% lost with giving birth, rest lost continuously during lactation
What is the average litter size in weight?
Why do water requirements increase during queen gestation?
Expansion of extracellular fluid compartments and maternal fetal tissues
How does the energy requirement increase for queens during gestation?
Increases linearly as weight increase also increases linearly
When is the peak of food intake during a queens gestation?
6 to 7 weeks of gestation
What is the MER for pregnant queens?
ME(kcal) = 140 x BW ^0.67
What is the recommended protein inclusion in pregnant queens?
53 g/1000 kcal ME
What are the effects of protein deficiency during gestation? (6)
- Decreased birthweight
- Increased neonatal mortality
- Decreased immunocompetence
- Delayed home orientation in kittens
- aberrant locomotor development
- emotional responsiveness
What are consequences of taurine deficiency in gestation of a queen
- Fetal death near day 25 of gestation
- abortions throughout gestation
- fetal deformities
- delayed growth and development
How does fat improve reproductive performance in queens?
- Number of kittens born
- decreases mortality rate
- improved reproductive efficiency
What happens with an arachiodonic acid deficiency in queens during gestation?
Not able to bare live kittens
Describe how the Ca and P requirement changes during gestation of a queen? what happens if this is not met?
- Increased demands for fetal skeletal development means Ca and P requirements increase
- Eclampsia in cats (seizures) in last three weeks of gestation
- 1.1 to 1.5:1 ratio
What is lactation in terms of energy for a queen?
- The most energy and nutrient demanding life stage.
- The queen should have sufficient stores at onset of lactation
When is the peak milk production in lactating queens? When is the peak energy demand?
- Production: 3-4 weeks
- Energy demand: 6-7 weeks
- There is a discrepancy in peak lactation and food intake
What is the energy requirement of a lactating queen?
- Depends on number of kittens
- 100xBW^0.67 + 70 X BW X L
- L= factor for stage of lactation from week 1 to The 70 is for more than 4 kittens (18 with less than 3, 60 with 3-4)
What is "L" during lactation energy requirement for queens?
- Factor for stage of lactation from week 1 to 7
- 0.9, 0.9, 1.2, 1.2, 1.1, 1.0, 0.8
What is the inclusion rate of protein in lactating queens?
75g/1000 kcal ME
What should be included in the lactating queen diet that is not normally included?
Soluble carbs should be included in the diet to spare protein and provide substrates for lactose production
What are the 5 ingredient characteristics that should be considered with a feed?
- Nutrient characteristics
- Functional characteristics
- Feed processing characteristics
- Taste characteristics
- Colour characteristics
Is bioavailability described well in nutrient characteristics of animal food? Why or why not?
- Poorly described
- Prefer not to use animal models
What is an important feed processing characteristic in pet feed?
Dry food must extrude well and keep shape
Why are colour characteristics important in pet food?
Pets don't care, but the owner will
What are the three different types of pet food?
- Semi-moist or soft-expanded
What are the three aspects to food quality evaluation?
- Input (Ingredients, intake)
- Output (Feces, stool quality)
- Pet (Growth, animal health, welfare)
What is brewer's rice
Dried extracted co-product of rice from the manufacture of wort or beer, may contain pulverized dried spent hops in an amount not to exceed 3%
What is poultry-by-product meal?
Consists of the ground rendered clean parts of the carcass of slaughtered poultry, such as necks feet, undeveloped eggs, intestines, exclusive of feathers except in such amounts as might occur unavoidably in good processing practices
Describe protein damage
- Heat-treated ingredients can make lysine less available.
- Lysine digestibility does NOT equal lysine availability
What is corn gluten meal?
Dried residue from corn after removal of the larger part of the starch and germ, and the separation of the bran by the process employed in the wet milling manufacture of corn startch/syrup.
What are pulses? What is an example
- Non-oilseed legumes
- Lentils and field peas are examples
Describe spray-dried cooked liver
- Can be chicken or pork
- Specialty protein source in diets
Describe fish meal
- Menhaden fish meal; IFN 5-02-009
- Omega 3 fatty acids, high in CP
Describe powdered cellulose
Important in weight management
- A small grain
- IFN 4-20-893
Describe soybean hulls
- Fermentable, important for stool quality
- IFN 1-04-500
Describe poultry fat
- price energy source
- Poultry fat; IFN 4-09-319
- Regular pet feedstuff
Describe powdered egg albumin
High quality protein source
Describe brewer's yeast
- Protein source
- B-Vitamin source
Describe Fish oil
- High quality oil
- IFN 7-08-049
- Not a regular feedstuff for pets
What is a benefit of pulse starch?
Non-digested pulse starches serve as fermentable CHOs
What happens to undigested starch?
Acts like fiber
Why were premixes developed?
Cheap way to meet requirements, hard to meet requirements
What regarding bioavailability is important to continue regarding companion animals?
- Bioavailability data is sorely lacking for companion animals
- Swine data base is much better
How does phytate affect bioavailability?
Phytate is a complex compound that binds Phosphorous and other minerals and even starch. Those P digestibility is low in plant products
40% Na 60% Cl
What might be single amino acids found in pet foods?
- Taurine, just for cat food
Why might Choline chloride be added in pet food?
What are 5 nutritive additives that may be in pet food?
- Chondroprotective agents
- Herbs and botanicals
Describe chondroprotective agents
- Retard degradation of cartilage
- Promote chondrocyte metabolism in treatments of osteoarthritis in dogs and cats
- Glucosamine, chondroitin sulfate
Describe antioxidants, are they more beneficial in cats or dogs
- They reduce oxidative damage and free radical formation
- Cats appear more prone to oxidative injury
- Vitamin E is essential and protects lipid rich cells
- Vitamin C is non essential but helps
- Mineral dependent antioxidants: Se, gluthione peroxidase
- B-carotene and other carotenoids (Precursor for Vit. A)
Why is the statement "dogs have a requirement for nutrients, but not feedstuffs" important?
What might be an important reason to look at ingredient composition?
- it holds true to a strict nutrient and science perspective
- Shelf life of a kibble, extraction ability, dog food vs cat food
What is the concern with Brewer's rice?
Depends on how much rice is in the food
What is the concern with poultry by product meal?
What is the nutrient availability when ingredient variability is so wide
What is a concern with corn gluten meal?
Quality is a concern and varies with how the corn gluten meal is made
What is a concern for lentil in food?
Has an anti-nutritional factor that may be related to taste and texture
What is a concern with fish meal?
It is not a long term sustainable process.
What is a concern with powdered cellulose?
Indigestible and hampers digestibility of other things in diet
What is a concern or sorghum?
What is a concern with soybean
Indigestible and can hamper digestibility of other ingredients
Describe kinetics of starch digestion
Kinetics can measure the degradation of ingredients in an animal. It gives a time component.
Why is fish oil not a regular feedstuff
What are probiotics
Describe enzymes in animal food?
- Supplemental enzymes are rarely used in pet foods
- Shelf-life, efficacy are conerns
Why are herbs and botanicals included in pet foods?
- Whole and provide macronutrients
- Provide flavor
What are prebiotics
Any carb that is not digested but fermented
What are technical or non nutritive feed stuffs in a pet food?
- Flavors and extracts
- Other additives that affect stability or form of food
What are 2 common preservatives in pet foods and what do they do?
- Ethoxyquin: antioxidant
- Propylene glycol: antimicrobial
What is melamine
A nitrogen component that can make up crude protein content but is not digestible. Some companies added this to meet CP levels.
What are the ten basic steps in diet formulation?
- Keep it simple. Use simplest effective ration
- Determine nutrient requirements for specific animal
- Put nutrient and ingredients in proper order
- Build the rest of diet around most important
- Determine special restrictions or considerations
- Consider expected feed intake
- Determine type of feeding management
- Determine feedstuff availability and cost
- Determine need for supplements or additives
- Balance the diet
Describe how dry, semi-moist and canned foods change on an as fed and DM basis
Dry has highest energy on dry, but canned has highest on dm basis. Dry has highest CHO dm basis and as fed
What are the advantages and disadvantages of dry foods?
- Advantages: Ease of storage and feeding
- Lower cost (1/3 - 1/2 of canned)
- Free choice feeding option
- Abrasive effects reduce tarter build up
- Disadvantages: Lower palatability
- Change of reduced nutrient content - improper heating
- Restricted amounts of fats and energy, lower digestibility
- Can all be overcome by proper formulation and processing
What is the moisture content of Dry, semi-moist and canned foods on an as fed basis? DM basis?
- 6-10, 15-30, 75
- DM basis = 0 for all!
What are advantages and disadvantages of semi-moist foods
- Advantages: can be sold in bags, do not require refrigeration
- Can be fed free choice, can be sold in larger amounts
- Can be fed as patties
- Disadvantages: Great cost
- Contains acidifiers to lower pH and retard bacterial growth
- high in sugar to improve taste
What are advantages of canned food?
- Advantages: Increased palatability
- Disadvantages: Too much protein and fat
- Greater cost
- Increased attention to dental care, not abrasive
What is the quality of food related too? What is it not related too?
The quality of food is not related to its form but to its formulation
What are dry foods often coated with? after what? and why?
Extruded particles can be coated after extrusion to enhance palatability
What are the five consideration in quality control of extrusion?
- Ingredient characteristics
- Equipment variables
- Pre-processing (grinding)
- Cooling and drying
- (In order of importance)
What are advantages of processing?
- Increases palatability and acceptability
- Increases nutrient availability
- Removes toxins, inhibitors and unwanted fractions
- Increases shelf-life and storage time
- Improves handling characteristics
- Improves texture, taste or appearance
- Increases or decreases nutrient density
- Adds flexibility
What are problems with processing?
- Decreases palatability and acceptability
- Can decrease digestibility
- Can accidentally introduce contaminants
- May reduce texture, taste and appearance
Raw materials enter and are mixed with liquids or heated with steam. Propelled through machine and rotated, and forced through die openings. Product expands into desired shape/size and they are cut.
- Blending fat and meat ingredients, some water, plus dry ingredients
- Blended, perhaps ground
- Blanched and cooked
- Add to can, sealed
- Materials can also be added to novel containers
- Heat may destroy nutrients (aa's)
What are two types of food sensitivity?
- Food allergy (Adverse reactions to food that have an immunologic basis)
- Food intolerance (Adverse reactions to food due to nonimmunologic mechanism)
What are symptoms of food sensitivity?
- Skin: Pruritus, self-inflicted alopecia (neurodermatitis), eosinophilic plaques, indolent ulcers of lip in some cats
- Digestive tract: Vomiting, small bowel diarrhea, large bowel diarrhea
- Usually 4-24 hours after consumption of food with offending antigen
Describe food allergens
- Typically large proteins: beef, dairy products fish and gluten intolerance
- Lactose intolerance
What are the steps of diagnosis of food sensitivity?
- First: rule out of other causes of allergic disease
- Feeding and elimination diet and demonstrate a decrease of elimination of clinical signs
- Challenging the animal with the original diet and observing a return of the clinical signs
- Feeding select ingredients to identify the specific dietary component to which the animal is allergic
How can specific food allergens be identified?
By adding a small amount of a single suspected allergen to the elimination diet
What are the non-allergen diet considerations?
- Reduced number of novel, highly digestible protein sources or contain a protein hydrolysate
- Avoid protein excesses
- Avoid additives and vasoactive amines
- Be nutritionally adequate for the animals life stage and condition
What are recommended ingredients of homemade elimination foods?
- Lamb, rice, rabbit (cats)
- Rice, potato, lamb, fish, rabbit, venison and tofu (dog)
What is the most common form of malnutrition in companion animals?
- overconsumption of calories
- Excess body fat deposition
- Increased ratio of fat to lean tissue
- Animals in positive balance for extended period of time
What are the definitions of overweight?
- Animal 1-9% above optimal weight: above optimal
- Animals 10-19% above optimal weight: overweight
- Animals >20% above optimal weight: Obese
What are 5 risks factors for obesity
- Gender (females more) and gonadectonomy
- Physical activity
- Type of diet fed
What breeds of dogs have a higher incidence of obesity?
- Cocker spaniels
- Golden retrievers
Why does neutering of dogs and cat increase risk of obesity?
Lowers basal metabolic rates by 20-25%
When changing food to reduce feed intake, what is important to do?
Feed a less dense food so the animal feels full
What should obese cats be fed?
- A commercial food formulated for weight loss
- Contains adequate amounts of protein, fat, vitamins and minerals
What may be fed to dogs to encourage weight loss? Why?
- Complex carbs are lower in energy than fat and highly digestible
- No increased defecation as with high fiber
What is a consideration with a weight loss diet?
Adjust diet to ensure adequate intake of other associated nutrients is met
Describe a weight loss diet for horses
- Lower amount of ration for high-calorie diet
- Increase exercise
- Reduce nonfibrous carbs and fat from feed
- Feed bulkier feedstuffs such as grass hay
Name dog cat and horse disorders that are associated with obesity
- Dogs: Diabetes mellitus type 1 and 2
- Cats: Diabetes mellitus Type 2, Hepatic lipidosis
- Horses: Diabetes, Laminitis
Describe Diabetes mellitus
- Chronic endocrine disorder caused by altered glucose metabolism, usually as a result of either relative or absolute deficiency of insulin
- Type 1: abrupt onset. Lack of endogenous insulin production by the pancreas. (Need to administer insulin for survival)
- Symptoms: increased water consumption (polydipsia), increased urination (polyuria), weight loss on occasion
- Type 2: Slow onset. Impaired insulin secretion and cellular resistance to circulating insulin. Insulin resistance
Describe diabetes in cats
- Risk factors: age, obesity, inactivity (neutered males higher), breed (Siamese)
- Most common form is type 2.
- 70% of diabetic cats need insulin therapy for survival because of amyloid deposition in islet cells.
- Portion-controlled meal feeding should be used
- A meal should be offered prior to administering insulin
- Lifelong treatment
- Weight reduction and control
- Feed a premium cat food that has a fixed formulation with high-quality ingredients and a consistent caloric distribution of CHO, fat and protein
Describe diabetes in dogs
- Females more prone
- Australian terrier more prone
- Most common form in dogs: type 1 (insulin injection)
- Lifelong treatment
- Complex CHO should make up 40-50% of calories
- Rice should be avoided
- Food should contain a fermentable fiber blend
- Fat should be restricted
- Portion-controlled feeding
- Consistent feeding times
Describe diabetes in horses
- Rarely develops in horses
- Most common in older horses
- Insulin resistance lads to other disorders: Laminitis, Pituitary pars intermedia dysnfunction, osteochondrosis
- Avoidance of high starch diets is key to nutritional management
Describe hepatic lipidosis in cats
- Excessive accumulation of triglycerdies in hepatic cells (interferes with liver function
- Common liver disorder in cats (females>males, associated with obesity and diabetes)
- Clinical signs: anorexia, depression, jaundice, weight loss, muscular wasting, occasional vomiting and diarrhea
- Reversible but requires aggressive treatment
- Most effective treatment includes a high-protein, energy dense diet
- Anorexia may persist for several months
Describe laminitis in horses
Systemic disease resulting from failure of the attachment between the dermal and epidermal laminae junction in the foot
What are the four phases of laminitis in horses?
- Developmental: Period between initial causative insult and first appearance of lameness (24-60 hours)
- Acute: follows developmental phase and can manifest in no physical damage or result in rotation of distal phalanx (72 hours)
- Subacute: follows acute phase with absence of physical damage and considered recovery period (8-12)
- Follows acute phase with rotation and results in horse having mechanical collapse of foot
What types of feed are important in controlling laminitis?
Feed diets which do not disturb the microbial environment of the cecum
Describe chronic kidney disease
- Dogs and cats with kidney disease have progressive loss of functioning nephrons. However, kidney has large capacity to compensate.
- Clinical signs appear with 70-85% loss of functioning nephrons
- Onset of chronic kidney disease when compensatory mechanism of kidney breaks down
What are underlying causes of chronic kidney disease?
- Immunological disease
- Exposure to toxins
- older age
- In most cases, underlying cause is no longer present
What are clinical signs of Chronic Kidney Disease
- Increased water intake (Polydypsia) and increased urination
- Azotemia: accumulation of nitrogenous wastes in blood (creatinine)
- Uremia: accumulation of urea in blood
- Mild to moderate renal disease
- End stage renal disease
- Kidney disfunction
- Also, decreased appetite, vomiting, depression, electrolyte and pH disturbances, mucosal ulcers, bone demineralization
What are ways to manage Chronic Kidney Disease?
- No cure, but can manage through diet
- A high quality protein that does not exceed maintenance requirements should be fed. Only restrict dog diets with protein in cases of uremia. Do not restrict cat diet
- The food should provide adequate calories from CHO and fat to minimize use of body tissues and protein for energy
- Palatable food to prevent anorexia
- Extra water-soluble vitamins if polyuria
- Restricted in phosphorous
- Inclusion of potassium citrate to control metabolic acidosis
- Food should contain moderately fermentable fibers to increase nitrogen excretion in feces
Describe the growth of bones
- Ossification: Bones grow by initially forming a cartilage template onto which calcium is deposited to form bone
- End of a bone will grow in two places: epiphyseal plate, cartilage
Inadequate blood supply to reach the cartilage, creating a thickened cartilage layer. Abnormal cartilage is weakened causing inflammation and arthritis
What are the three primary forms of osteochondrosis in dogs
- Ununited anconeal process: Ossification of anconeal process in elbow is impaired and fused with ulna
- Fragmented coronoid process: elbow, hard to diagnose
- Ostechondrosis dissecans: separation of a flap of cartilage from underlying bone
- All types cause arthritic changes if left untreated
What are risk factors of developmental orthopedic diseases
- Genetics (large or giant breed)
- Nutrition: high energy foods, excessive calcium (Increased risk when highly palatable)
- High energy intake directly affect growth
- Increased hormonal influenced result In enhanced mitotic activity of cartilage cells
- Articular cartilage less supported in rapidly growing animals
What is the blood hormone that increases deposition of Ca in bones
What are four ways to prevent developmental orthopedic diseases
- Determine if animal as at risk: breed
- If at risk, control nutrients through food composition and feeding methods
- Do not add vitamin or mineral supplements to balanced foods particularly Ca, P, Vit D and Vit A
- Determine animals BCS
What are methods to treat Developmental Orthopedic disease in dogs?
- Determine nutritional imbalance
- Food should be formulated for large or giant breed puppies
- The food should be meal- fed
- If a well-balanced growth food was being fed and skeletal diseases occur, reduce food intake up to 25%
- No vitamin or mineral supplements
- Treatment for specific problems
What are methods to treat Developmental Orthopedic disease in horses?
- Determine nutritional imbalance
- Food should be formulated for young growing foals
- Nonfiber CHO should be meal-fed
- If a well-balanced growth food was being fed and skeletal diseases occur, reduce nonfiber intake
- No vitamin or mineral supplements
- Treat for specific problems
How many cats are afflicted with Feline Lower urinary Tract Disease
What are the signs of Feline lower Urinary Tract Disease
- Depend on location, size and number of crystals or uroliths
- Frequeny urination
- Complete obstruction: fatal
What are the two types of uroliths?
What are the required conditions needed for Struvite crystal formation
- High concentration of Magnesium, Phosphorus, Ammonium
- Urine pH >7
What are the required conditions needed for Calcium Oxalte urolith formation?
Calcium oxalate soluble in alkaline pH. Precipitate in acidified urine 6.3-6.7.
Which dietary ingredients increase urinary acid excreition (and reduce uroliths)
Proteins of animal orign, corn gluten meal, methionine, phosphoric acid
What is a difference between calcium oxalate and strutvite urolith removal?
- Can dissolve struvites
- have to surgically remove
What is Hyperkalemic Periodic paralysis
- Affects horses
- Co-dominant single autosomal genetic disorder
- Dominant gene so must be inherited
- Facilitated movement of potassium into and sodium out of cell
- Causes severe repetitive contractions
- Contractions may become tetanic causing death due to respiratory failure
How can Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis be managed through diet?
- Treatment aims to limit increases in serum potassium
- Restrict potassium (<1%)
- Grass forages have less potassium than legumes
- Grains not as problematic
What is wellness
- The state of being in good physical and mental health
- The condition of good physical, mental and emotional health, especially when maintained by an appropriate diet, exercise and other lifestyle modifications
What is a nutraceutical
A term joining two words: nutrition and pharmaceutical
What must a nutraceutical fulfill?
- Must have a bioavailabilty and be safe
- Must have a mechanism of action
- Must have specific effects
What created the wellness food movement?
The aging pet population
What are some proposed goals/benefits of wellness foods?
- Maintaining healthy joint function
- Support skin and coat health
- Promote thinking and memory
- Maintaining eye health
What order are rabbits in?
What is a different between rabbits and rodents?
- Have 4 not 2 incisors
- Herbivores, not omnivores
What occurs in rabbits in night?
During night, bacteria in cecum and colon make cecotropes: High protein fecal pellets
What occurs during gastric stasis in rabbits?
Why is a high fiber diet important in rabbits
Fiber promotes saliva and lubrication of GIT
Describe the fiber requirements of a rabbit compared to dogs and cats?
High fiber requirement
Describe the protein requirement of rodents
What is a diet that has been developed for rodents? Describe it
- Growth (20% CP and maintenance 16% Cp diets
- Best defined diet
- Purified diet
What do guinea pigs require in the diet?
Which animal is a nutritional idiosyncrasies? What does that mean?
- If Ca:P is 2:1 and ca>0.6 do not require Vitamin D
- Make vitamin D from cholesterol and sunlight
How many fish species are kept in aquariums
More than 5000
Define the diet of aquarium fish
Few carnivores, many omnivores and herbivores
What are the major classifications of fish
- Warm(tropical) or cold (temperate)
- Top, bottom or middle feeding
- Night or day feeding
- Single of mixed population in one aquarium
Give a brief sum of the digestive physiology of fish
- Only a few fish species have teeth
- Food eaten as whole or in large particles
- Stomach generally small
- In small fish, no stomach
Describe the ectothermic fish
- Do not maintain a constant body temperature (cold blooded)
- Live out and carry chemical reactions at the whim of the environmental temperature they live in
- Less energy to maintain normal life! But needs good water temp
Describe the nutrient requirements of fish
- Rely more on aa than CHO
- Higher protein turnover than mammals
- Not always growth-limited
- Omnivorous and carnivorous fish can utilize starch
- Herbivores not adapted to large meals
- Do not need as much Ca or P, but can not pull Ca from bones. need regular supply
- High iron can interfere with O2 transfer
- Need Vitamin C: if not lordosis (Upward and downward curvature of spine)
Describe fish pigmentation
- Most colours are from carotenoids
- Two major components that are fed: astaxanthin and canthaxanthin
Why are Omega 3 and 6 Fas needed in fish
- Because of big changes in water temperature
- At 5-10, 3:6 ratio should be 2
- At 15:20 ratio should be 0.5
What is the order of ornamental birds
Describe the digestive physiology of birds
- Small or absent cecum and colon
- Transit time is less than 12 hours
- Main source of glucose is CHO
- Many small birds can not use fiber
Why can't birds eat grasses
Too low in Ca
Describe the growth of birds
Very fast. 25% protein needed early in growth
What is the essential aa involved in uric acid synthesis in growing and reproducing birds?
What is moult
- Replacement of feathers by new ones
- Usually on annual basis
- Large amounts of aa's, especiall methionine, cysteine, proline and glycine required
- Increase protein and energy
What are lizards referred to? snakes? turtles?
- Squamata, Sauria
- Squamata, Serpentes
Describe the saurian digestive system (reptile)
Cecum, larger volume and greater length of herbivore hindgut
What can dehydration cause in reptiles?
- Dyscedysis: excess drying of skin
Describe how energy requirements of reptiles changes with temp?
- Too low temp: decrease food intake, nutrient requirements and growth
- Too high: excessive metabolism and decreased food intake and growth
- Require only 1/4 energy of similar sized mammals
Why don't carnivorous reptiles eat invertebrate prey?
- Too low in Ca
- Need bones for Ca
- Cat food might be an option