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Name three things that will make eggs foam
- no fat
- room temperature
How does sugar affect egg white foams?
sugar helps to stabilize the foam. But it needs to be added at the END (or else it retards growth)
Name 3 things that will make cream beat best
- cold cream
- cold beaters
- cold bowl
Name three things in the meat group that aren’t meat
Where is the fat in an egg?
List the main ingredients in a white sauce
butter (fat), flour, and milk
What is a roux?
equal amounts fat and flour
List the basic steps for preparing rice
Boil some water with salt, add rice and cover (and do not uncover), turn temperature to low, fluff with a fork after cooking time is done
What is the difference between short grain, long grain and brown rice?
- long grain- fluffy
- short grain- sticky
- brown rice- least processed/whole grain/takes longer to cook
Name 4 leaveners
- Baking soda (when added with an acid- produces CO2)
- Baking powder (has acid with it)
- Yeast (produces carbon dioxide)
What does it mean when rice and flour are enriched?
Nutrients have been added to it
Name 3 types of flour, listing from lowest protein to highest
- cake flour
- pastry flour
- all purpose
- bread flour
- whole wheat
What makes fudge grainy?
What makes caramels too sticky?
How is all purpose flour different from self-rising flour?
Self-rising flour has salt and a leavener (Baking Soda or Baking Powder) All purpose flour does not.
What is an interfering agent in candies?
an interfering agent is anything that slows down or stops crystallization. butter is an example. (don't want crystals / will happen if at room temp)
Give an example of crystalline candy and non-crystalline candy
crystalline - fondant, fudge, divinity, creams
non-crystalline - caramel, toffee, taffy
How can humidity affect candy making?
Makes the candy too soft. Sugar is very hygroscopic (attracts water) - while crystalline candies are cooling in an extremely humid environment, moisture will be removed from the air and held in the cooling candy. The result is that the candy will have higher moisture content after standing than it did when it was first removed from the heat
Are fresh and dry herbs interchangeable?
Yes, but use less if dry because they are more concentrated. (2-4x less than fresh)
What is the difference between quick breads and yeast breads?
LEAVENERS. Quick breads rise faster (generally have Baking Soda or Powder) while yeast breads take longer to rise and have yeast (you have to wait for fermentation and proofing of the dough before baking)Quick breads- leavener is generally an alkaline and acid (baking powder / soda)Yeast breads- leavener is yeast
Is the fat in muffins usually liquid or solid?
Is the fat in biscuits usually liquid or solid?
How can oil temp affect the quality of a fried product?
- too hot - outside burned before the inside is cooked
- too low - saturated with oil before it’s done cooking
Why is bread dough kneaded?
to develop gluten
Name the main ingredients in yeast breads and their function
- Flour- structure and protein
- Sugar- feeds yeast
- Yeast- leavener (provides fermentation- CO2 produced)
- Salt- inhibits yeast growth (means of controlling yeast growth)
How can meal service types differ?
- American service - all of the food is placed on serving dishes on the table and passed around
- family service - service of a meal by the host, who serves all of the food onto plates stacked in front of him and then passes the served plates to the hostess and others at the table
- blue plate service - dinner plates are served from the kitchen
- English service - a waiter or waitress carries the dinner plate (served by the host) to the diner
- Russian service - very formal, waiters or waitresses serve the plates at a sideboard and carry them individually to the diners at the table; the meal is served in several courses, with the table being cleared between each course
What should you consider when selecting a centerpiece for your meal?
- don’t choose something too big for the space or something that blocks eye contact
- don’t choose something that makes the table seem crowded
On what side of the plate do you place spoons? Forks? Knives?
- Forks- Left
- Spoons- Right
- Knives- Right
What is the proper way to measure flour, sugar, brown sugar, powdered sugar?
- Flour -- spoon, then level with knife
- Sugar -- scoop and level
- Brown Sugar -- pack and level
- Powdered Sugar -- spoon and level
What shape of container cooks most evenly in the microwave?
What is standing time in microwave cooking?
used in food prep to denote an interval when food item is left standing (continues cooking)
What fields are necessary for obtaining your dietary recommendations on choosemyplate?
age, sex, physical activity
Know the purpose of choosemyplate
help maintain a healthy diet & lifestyle
What are the groups of choosemyplate and what are the main nutrients you get from each group?
- Grain- #1 source of energy, carbs, fiber
- Vegetables- vitamins, fiber, minerals
- Fruits- vitamins, fiber, minerals
- Protein- (meat - iron), build & repair muscle tissue;
- Dairy- minerals, proteins, calcium, phosphorous
What is found on a food label?
Serving sizes, ingredients, nutrition facts
How are ingredients listed on a food label?
By weight highest to lowest
What is the best way to store most fruits and vegetables?
In the fridge (not potatoes)
What is the best way to store most grains?
cool, dry place
What is the best way to store most canned goods?
cool, dry place
What is a better oil for frying, vegetable or olive? Why?
vegetable oil. Olive oil will smoke at lower temperatures (and is more expensive)
How many cal/g from carbs, protein, fat?
- carbs - 4 cal/g
- protein - 4 cal/g
- fat - 9 cal/g
What is the danger zone?
40 - 140
5 tips for smart grocery shopping
eye level- sugar stuff, lower cost foods/fresh- periphery, aisles- processed, list, go thru store backwards, don’t shop hungry, have a recipe in mind when buying new foods for the first time
Pros and cons of grocery store, big box, warehouse and convenience store
Grocery store (Smith’s): Pros- quick in & out, store brands, rewards card, weekly ads, customer service Cons- higher price sometimes Big Box (Walmart): Pros- bulk shopping power, varied products, convenient locations Cons- time consuming, fewer selection of meat & produce, limited customer serviceWarehouse (Costco): Pros- bulk buying, range of services, shop online Cons- Membership required, limited store brands, big quantities, often can’t pay with credit cardConvenience (Walgreens): Pros- quick, convenient Cons- limited product & services
How do you prepare tender cuts of meat? Less tender?
- Tender cuts of meat = dry heat (bbq, roast, panfry, deep fry)
- Less tender = moist heat (stew, braise, steam, poach, crock pot, pressure cooker)
How many tsp = tbsp?
3 tsp in a Tbs
How many tbsp = cup?
16 Tbs in a cup
How many cubes margarine = cup?
2 cubes in a cup
List 3 functions of egg as an ingredient
- - emulsifying agent (for smooth cake batters and cream puffs)
- - Coloring and flavoring agent (lemon meringue pie, for example)
- - Thickening agent
- - Clarifying agent
- - Structural and textural agent (leavening--beaten eggs)
What is unit price? How is it calculated?
Price per ounce. total price divided by total number of ounces.
What kind of food preservation can you do at home?
Canning, bottling, dehydration, freezing
How can you keep freshly cut fruits from browning?
put lemon juice on top (or citric acid)
How do you half an egg?
What happens to eggs as they get older? For what type of food preparation might you use an older egg?
- -Air pocket increases
- -The yolk and white separate and the yolk isn't as plump, so it doesn't look as nice. They're still fine to use in baked goods.
What is the difference between complete and incomplete proteins? Give an example of each.
- complete: Contain all 9 essential amino acids (animal products; meat, yogurt, egg, milk).
- incomplete: Do not contain all essential amino acids, but can be combined with other foods to become complete (plant products, beans and rice, peanut butter and bread).
How is baking soda different from baking powder?
- -Baking soda is pure sodium bicarbonate (rising happens immediately)
- -Baking powder contains sodium bicarbonate, but it includes the acidifying agent already (cream of tartar), and also a drying agent (usually starch). (Rising happens as temperature increases)
How can altitude affect food preparation?
You may need to add more flour or boil things longer, adjust candy thermometer temperatures.
Give 2 functions of sugar in food
- brown foods (seen in the browning of crusts)
- feed yeast
- Competes with flour (sugar delays the gluten development)
When making quick breads, what 2 ingredients determine what classification of quick bread your recipe falls in?
liquid to flour ratio
What do carbohydrates do?
What do fats do?
provide insulation and protection.
What does protein do?
promotes muscle growth and tissue repair
Which cholesterol is bad? How can you decrease it?
LDL (Low Density). You can decrease it with exercise and eating healthier fats.
What is radiant heat?
Transfer of energy directly from the source to the food being heated (grilling, or roasting a marshmellow)
What is convection heat?
Transfer of heat thru a system by movement of currents of heated air, water, or other liquid (convection oven, boiling)
How do microwaves work?
heats the molecules (food molecules vibrate together, causing friction & therefore heating the food), magnetron tube used to generate microwaves, foods high in fat & sugar cook more quickly than others
What is conduction heat?
Transfer of heat from one molecule to the next (saute, pan fry)
What are the three parts of a kernel and what do you find in each?
- Germ =fat
- Bran = fiber and B vitamins
- Endosperm = carbohydrate, B vitamins, proteins
How do you get salmonella?
Salmonella comes from poultry, eggs, and sometimes ground beef.
How do you get botulism?
Canning. Botulism usually is in soup (a soup can that is bulging) or homemade soup that has been left out too long. Mainly canned products though.
Give a tip for cooking with dairy
Low heat and watch carefully to avoid scorching. Stir often. cook for a short amount of time.
How are nutrients best retained when cooking fruits and vegetables?
Cook in a small amount of water for a short amount of time.
What should you consider when planning a meal?
Texture, color, size of portions, variety of nutrients, shape, preferences, allergies