Where was the first action taken in the Civil war?
Fort Sumter April 12, 1861
In response to what action from Pres Lincoln did VA, TN, NC, and AR decide to secede?
Upon Maj Robert Anderson's surrender at Sumter Lincoln called on the states to provide 75,000 volunteers to put down the insurrection
Delaware sided with North because they had few slaves, but why did Kentucky side with the North?
They wanted to stay neutral but the South wouldn't not respect its neutrality
How was Maryland's secession movement stopped?
Lincoln enacted martial law
What saved Missouri for the Union?
The sizeable population of pro-Union, anti-slavery German immigrants living in St. Louis
What were 5 major advantages the North had over the South?
1. Wealth to finance war
2. Industry to manufacture war essentials
3. Manpower. north outnumbered 3/1 and 1/3 of South's population were slaves
4. North maintained control of the Navy
5. North had a better system of railroads
What were some of the advantages the South brought to the war?
1. Vast land size
2. Just had to resist being conquered, didn't have to conquer the North
3. Troops fighting for their own land(familiarity)
4. Fought on the defensive (advantage at the time of civil war)
On July 21, 1861 Conf. Generals PGT Bearuegard and Joseph Johnston forced the Union army to retreat at Manassas Junction, VA at what battle?
The First battle of Bull Run
What did the Anaconda plan, introduced by Winfield Scott, provide for as the Union's strategy?
1. Naval blockade, cut supplies from Europe
2. Take the MS river, splitting the South in half
3. Hold strategic points and wait for pro-Union sentiment (Lincoln believed this unrealistic)
Who was the Secretary of Navy that expanded his forces to the extent that he could effectively blockade the South's large coastline in accordance with Winfield Scott's Anaconda plan?
In April 1862, this Union captain took New Orleans, a major step in trying to control the MS River.
Capt. David G. Farragut
At the battle of 7 pines during McClellen's peninsula campaign Joseph E. Johnston was wounded and replaced by who?
Gen. Robert E. Lee
After the battle of 7 pines Lee summoned what general and his army from the Shenandoah Valley where his troops had just defeated several regiment of superior US troops?
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
Robert E. Lee defeated US General John Pope in northern Virginia at what battle?
The 2nd battle of Bull Run
What general captured Forts Henry and Donelson in a combined Army and Navy operation causing Confederate General Albert Sidney Johnston to retreat to Corinth, MS?
The Union had controlled all but what 110 mile stretch of the MS River?
From Confederate fortress in Vicksburg, MS to Port Hudson, LA
What were the names of the first confederate and union ironclad ships?
CSS Virginia and USS Monitor
During the Civil war what two domestic affairs acts where passed for the North?
The Homestead Act and The Morrill Land Grant Act
What did the Homestead Act (1862) provide for?
Granted 160 acres of land to anyone who would farm it for at least 5 years. (Much of the West was settled under the provisions of this act.)
What did the Morrill Land Grant Act (1862) provide for?
Offered large amounts of federal government land to establish "agricultural and mechanical" colleges. (In later years many state universities were founded under this act.)
In 1863 Northern demands for manpower began to grow. How was this addressed?
a draft was implemented
What was the provision to the conscription act that allowed a person to avoid the draft?
A person could hire a substitute or pay $300
What led non-slaveholding whites to grumble that it was a "rich man's war but a poor man's fight?"
A Southern conscription act provision allowed one overseer for every 20 slaves to be able to avoid the draft
The North used high tariffs and began an income tax to help support the war, what did Treasury Secretary Salmon P. Chase do to help raise more money for the war effort?
This act was passed to facilitate the financing of the Northern War effort.
Nation Bank Act (1863)
Against the insistence of Pro-Southern chief justice Roger B. Taney, what allowed Lincoln to imprison suspected secessionist without charges or trial?
The suspension of "habeas corpus"
What were "copperheads"?
Northerners who opposed the war and denounced Lincoln's efforts
What was the Emancipation Proclamation?
Declared that slaves in areas still in rebellion would be free starting on January 1, 1863
Seward recommended that Lincoln wait for a Union victory to announce the Emancipation Proclamation. What battle provided this opportunity?
The Battle of Antietem , September 17, 1863
Despite general Lee retreating back to VA after this battle Gen. McClellen was removed from command because of his timidity.
Battle of Antietem
Lincoln replaced McClellen with what general who showed his unfitness for command by lopsidedly losing in Fredricksburg, VA December 13, 1862
General Ambrose E. Burnside
After Burnside lost at Fredricksburg he was replaced by what general that marched south and was soundly beaten at the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 5-6, 1863?
General Joseph (Fighting Joe) Hooker
How did Stonewall Jackson die?
Accidentally shot by his own men at the Battle of Chancellorsville
Lee attempted to invade Pennsylvania meeting up with what Union General that had replaced Fighting Joe Hooker?
General George G. Meade
What 3 day battle on July 1-3, 1863 was the bloodiest battle of the war and led to Lee being defeated and retreating with his army intact back to VA?
After General William Rosecrans embarrassing defeat at the Battle of Chickamauga in NW GA, who did Lincoln appoint to be the overall commander of Union forces in the West?
Which victory by general Sherman in September 1864 boosted Northern morale and helped Lincoln secure a second term as president?
Sherman finally took Atlanta
On April 3, 1865 Lee abandoned VA and attempted to escape only to have to surrender on April 9, 1865 where?
Not being able to hear the report of the final confederate surrenders Lincoln was assassinated on what day?
April 14, 1865
In 1865 congress created what to provide food, clothing, and education and to generally look after the interest of former slaves?
How did Lincoln's Ten Percent Plan establish Union friendly governments in the southern states that had come under Union control during the civil war?
10% of the number of registered voters calculated from 1860 would have to sign an oath to the Union and denounce the legality of slavery. Only then would those people who had signed the oath be able to vote or run for office
Tennessee, Arkansas, and Louisiana met the requirements and formed loyal governments. Why were these states not given representation of electoral votes in the 1864 election?
The Congress was composed of radical Republicans like Thaddeus Stevens who thought Lincolns plan didn't punish the South adequately and that it didn't boost the prospects of the republican party to their satisfaction
What bill asked for a Southern state's majority to sign an "ironclad" oath stating they were now loyal and were never disloyal to the Union?
Wade-Davis Bill (pocket vetoed by Lincoln)
Upon Lincoln's death who was his VP that picked right up were he left off with the reconstruction?
In 1862 while the states were occupied by civil war Napoleon III, ignoring the Monroe Doctrine, sent what man to act as a puppet emperor of Mexico?
Austrian Archduke Maximilian
Who vigorously pushed the purchase of Alaska from the Russians through the Congress?
Secretary of State Seward, at the time this was referred to as "Seward's Folly"
In 1867 the sale of Alaska went through and the territory was purchased for what amount?
What act divided the southern states into 5 military districts to be ruled by military governors with almost dictatorial powers?
Military Reconstruction Act
Why did the congress pass the Army Act during the reconstruction?
To take away Johnson's control of the army
What was the purpose of Congress passing the Tenure of Office Act?
To keep Johnson from dismissing cabinet members without Senate approval, specifically they didn't want him to dismiss radical republican Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton
To test the constitutionality of the Tenure of Office Act in the court system Johnson went ahead and dismissed Edwin M. Stanton (SecWar) instead of the courts taking this issue up what happened?
The house impeached him but the Senate was one vote short of impeachment. This resulted in Johnson being less resistant of the radical republicans in the Congress
What prompted republicans to expedite allowing blacks to vote?
After the 1868 election Grant won by a narrow margin. Republicans wanted more votes from southern states and assumed they would get them by allowing blacks to vote
This amendment was so unpopular with the North that it needed the votes of the southern states that were required to vote for it to make it pass.
15th (Gave blacks the vote)
What caused the tenure of President Grant to be one mired with corruption?
Despite being a man of integrity he was naive and put to much trust in the people that helped him get elected
What scandal involved Jim Fiske and Jay Gould who persuaded Grant's brother-in-law to convince Grant that stopping government sales of gold would be good to farmers? After complying many business men were ruined.
The Black Friday Scandal
This scam involved officials from the Union Pacific Railroad that used a dummy construction company to skim millions off government subsidies. To ensure its success they bribed members of congress.
The Credit Mobilier Scandal
This act led to a 100% pay raise for the president and 50% for congress. Public outrage led to a Democratic victory in the next congressional election and the law was repealed
The Salary Grab Act
The scandal involved a politician of the same name who was contracted to collect $427,000 in unpaid taxes for a 50% commission and the commission found its way into republican campaign funds
The Sanborn Contract Fraud
This scandal involved distillers and treasury officials who conspired to defraud the government of large amounts of money from the excise tax on whiskey. Grant's own secretary was involved.
The Whiskey Ring Fraud
This scandal involved Grant's Secretary of War accepting bribes from corrupt agents involved in his department's administration of Indian Affairs.
The Bribing of Belknap (W. W. Belknap)
This was triggered early in Grant's 2nd term by the economic downturn in Europe, the failure of Jay Cooke and Company, and the over expansive tendencies of railroad builders and businessmen in the post-war boom.
The Panic of 1873
The crime of '73 refers to what?
The demonetization of silver in 1873
What led to the demonetization of silver in 1873?
Silver was becoming more plentiful due to Western mining causing some to believe that it would lead to inflation.
Trying to retire greenbacks, congress led by John Sherman passed what act allowing the redeeming of greenbacks for gold?
The Specie Resumption Act
President Hayes agreed to the Compromise of 1877 meant to appease the South provided for what?
1. Hayes promised to show consideration to Southern Interest.