Science vocab chapter 7

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Science vocab chapter 7
2013-12-16 18:24:59
Science vocab chapter

Science vocab chapter 7
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  1. Celestial object
    Any object that exists in space

    E.g. stars, moons, planets
  2. Astronomer
    • A scientist who studies astronomy, which is the study of the
    • night sky

    • E.g. the use telescopes to look at different galaxies and
    • such
  3. Revolution
    The time it takes for an object to orbit another object

    E.g. Earth’s revolution around the sun is 365.24 days
  4. Rotation
    The turning of an object around an imaginary axis through it

    E.g. Earth’s is 1 day long
  5. Constellation
    • A group of stars that seem to form a distinctive pattern in
    • the sky

    E.g. Ursa Major, Draco
  6. Light-year
    The distance that light travels in one year about 9.5x1012km

    • E.g. Pluto is 0.0006
    • light years away
  7. Apparent magnitude
    The brightness of a star as seen from earth

    E.g. Vega has a greater apparent magnitude than Polaris
  8. Asterism
    • A smaller group of stars that form patterns within a
    • constellation

    E.g. the big dipper, the little dipper
  9. Pointer stars
    • Stars that form imaginary lines to point towards another constellation
    • or area of importance

    E.g. the very right of the big dipper points to Polaris
  10. Circumpolar
    Constellations that are visible throughout the entire year

    E.g. Draco, Cassiopeia
  11. Zenith
    • The constellation that would be seen if you were to look
    • directly up

    E.g. depends on the time of day
  12. Tides
    • The rising and falling of ocean waters, caused by the Moon’s
    • and Earth’s gravity

    E.g. high tides are parallel to the Moon’s position
  13. Phases of the moon
    • The monthly progression of changes in the appearance of the
    • moon that result from different portions of the moon’s sunlit side being
    • visible from earth

    E.g. full moon, first quarter, etc..
  14. Lunar eclipse
    • The phenomenon in which the full Moon passes into Earth’s
    • Shadow

    E.g. moon looks red-ish
  15. Solar eclipse
    • The phenomenon in which the shadow of the Moon falls on the
    • Earth’s Surface

    E.g. sun looks black with glowing outline
  16. Why do we have seasons?
    We have seasons because the Earth rotates on an axis

    E.g. when it is tilted away from the sun, it is winter
  17. Planet (include inner planet & outer planet)
    • An object that orbits one or more stars (and is not a star
    • itself), is spherical, and does not share its orbit with another object. Inner planets
    • are on the inside of the asteroid belt, while outer planets are on the outside
    • it.

    E.g. Earth, Uranus, Jupiter
  18. Solar system
    A group of planets that circle one or more stars

    • E.g. our solar system contains all 8 of our planets and the
    • sun
  19. Retrograde motion
    • The movement of an object in the sky, usually a planet, from
    • east to west, rather than its normal motion from west to east, this effect is generally
    • produced when Earth is passing the planet in its orbit

    E.g. this happens with mars
  20. Astronomical unit
    The average distance between earth and the sun, 150x106km

    E.g. earth and the sun is 1Au
  21. Orbital radius
    • The average distance between the sun and an object that orbiting
    • the sun

    E.g. for earth it’s 1Au
  22. Geocentric model
    • A model of the solar system stating the Earth is the centre
    • of all planetary motion, with the planets and the Sun traveling in perfect circles
    • around Earth

    E.g.  made by ancient Greeks
  23. Heliocentric model
    • A model of the solar system in which the Sun id in the
    • centre with the planets orbiting it

    E.g. model we use now
  24. Comet
    • An object composed of rocky material, ice, and gas, comes
    • from the Kuiper belt or Oort cloud

    E.g. they are called shooting stars
  25. Asteroid
    • A small object that ranges in size from a tiny spec, like a
    • grain of sand, to 500km wide; most asteroids originate on the asteroid belt
    • between Mars and Jupiter

    E.g. in asteroid belt and Kuiper belt
  26. Meteoroid
    A piece of rock moving through space

    E.g. first stage of meteoroids
  27. Meteor
    A meteoroid that hit Earth’s atmosphere

    E.g. second stage of meteoroids
  28. Meteorite
    • A meteoroid that is large enough to pass through Earth’s atmosphere
    • and reach the ground, without being totally burned up

    E.g. third stage of meteoroids
  29. Trans-Neptunian object
    An object that circles the Sun beyond the orbit of Neptune

    E.g. the Kuiper belt