Two or more people who share the following characteristics:
-Interact regularly and influence each other
-Have an informal or formal social structure with leaders and followers
-Have a group consensus on certain values, behaviours, and goals.
A collection of people who interact briefly and have little influence on one another
Our society places high value on ______ and being able to _______ _________ in groups.
teamwork, work together
What is a Primary Group?
a small, emotionally close, interdependent group whose members see one another often, know one another well, and value each member as a whole person.
What is a Secondary Group?
A larger, more impersonal group that has limited info, dependence, or interest from its members except for their contribution to the group goals.
What are the three ways in which groups influence behaviour?
Roles, norms, and sanctions
Groups influence behaviour: What are roles?
Role expectiations that dictate the way we act.
Groups influence behaviour: What are norms and what are the types of norms?
We are all expected to follow certain norms or guidlines of behaviour for our different life rules. There are two types of norms:
1) Mores - highly regarded moral views that are almost never broken (ie. abuse is wrong)
2) Folkways - everyday habits or traditions concerning things like manners, interactions, or personal appearance (ie. saying thank you, trying to maintain a neat appearance etc.)
Groups influence behaviour: What are sanctions and name the 2 types
Punishments and rewards given to individuals to ensure that they follow the rules or guidelines expected by the group/society. The two types of sanctions are:
1) Informal Sanctions - a smile or grown for when our children misbehave/behave
2) Formal Sanctions - official public rewards or punishments (ie. getting arrested)
What is conformity?
Action in accord with prevailing social standards.
What are people who are in on an experiment called?
When did the Zimbardo Prison Experiment take place?
What is the Zimbardo Prison experiment?
Male university students acted as prisoners and guards in a makeshift prison set up in the basement of Stanford unit.
in the Zimbardo Prison experiment, the guards couldn't use physical control over the prisoners; What kinds of mental tactics did the guards use against the prisoners? Name 5.
Eat rotten food
What was the most effective mental tactic the guards used on the prisoners in the Zimbardo prison experiment?
Divide and conquer - turned the prisoners against each other.
How does the Zimbardo experiment relate to conformity?
Both the guards and the prisoners lost their identities, conforming to their roles.
Was the Zimbardo experiment ethical? Why or why not?
NO- Not only did the prisoners experience mental anguish, but the guards did too; they left the experiment thinking they were bad people.
When did the Milgram Shock experiment take place?
Basically, what was the Milgram Shock experiment?
Teachers were instructed by Dr. Milgram to ask a series of questions to learners (who were in on the experiment). The learners purposely answered incorrectly. Teachers had to administer a fake shock every time they got an answer wrong. The shock level increased for every wrong answer (max 450 volts). However the learners were not actually shocked.
What percentage of teachers administered the max shock of 450 V in the Milgram Shock experiment?
Why did the teachers administer the shocks in the Milgram Shock experiment? 2 reasons.
Teachers told they weren't responsible should anything happen to the learner
Dr. Milgram considered an authority figure; our society believes these individuals shouldn't be disobeyed.
Was the Milgram Shock experiment ethical? Why or why not?
NO- teachers who administered the max shock left the experiment thinking they were monsters.
When did the modern day Milgram Shock experiment take place?
Differences of Modern Day Milgram experiment?
Conducted by Dr. Berger
Included men and women
Shock only went up to 150 V.
What were the results of the Modern Day Milgram Experiment?
18 men - 65% administered max shock
22 women - 73% administered max shock
When did the Asch Conformity experiment take place?
What happened in the Asch Conformity experiment?
1 subject, 7 confederates, all men in the same room. They were asked which one of the drawn lines, A, B, or C, matches a separate single drawn line, D. Though C is the right answer, confederates were told purposely to answer incorrectly.
What are the results of the Asch Conformity experiments? why did this happen
32% of subjects also gave the incorrect answer b/c they didn't want to feel left out and doubted their own perception.
Was the Asch Conformity experiment ethical? Why or why not?
Slightly unethical, but not to the degree of Milgram or Zimbardo. This is bc the subject felt a mild amount of stress.
When did the murder of Kitty Genovese take place?
How many people (at least) watched Kitty Genovese get murdered?
What 3 things were the onlookers of the Kitty Genovese murder accused of?
Unwillingness to get involved
What is bystander apathy?
When everyone sees a wrong-doing but nobody does anything to help- The mere presence of others predicts a lower frequency of helping behavior.
What is negative conformity?
Disobeying just rules/laws.
What is positive conformity?
Obeying just rules/laws.
What is deviance?
Departing from the norm.
What is negative deviance?
Disobeying just rules/laws.
What is positive deviance?
Disobeying unjust rules/laws.
What 5 things cause us to conform?
Fear of punishment
Need to fit in
Belief in authority
The desire to please
When did the Latane and Darley experiment take place?
What was the procedure of the Latane and Darley case?
Direct result of the Genovese case. Male graduates invited to discuss "problems with life at an urban University." Each man reported to a waiting room where he had to fill out a questionnaire, either alone or with two confederates. Smoke then began to pour in from a wall vent. Confederates ignored it.
What were the results of the Latane and Darley experiment?
Out of those who waited alone - 75% reported the smoke
Out of those who waited with others - fewer than 10% reported the smoke
What is a crowd? What are the three types of crowds?
A crowd is a group of people temporarily gathered together. The three types are casual crowds, expressive crowds, and acting crowds.
What is a casual crowd?
People in stores, on the street, etc. People mind their own business, but this can also have harmful consequences. ie. kitty genovese case
What is an expressive crowd?
A crowd in which there is a show of feelings or release of tensions and frustrations. ie. concert
What is an acting crowd? What are the 2 subdivisons of acting crowds?
Crowds that do some kind of physical activity, has goals, and tries to cause change. They are often dangerous.
Mobs - organized but aggressive
Riots - unorganized and aggressive
Mob mentality - what can often lead people to do things they normally wouldn't?
What are the four compliance techniques?
The foot in the door
Door in the face
That's not all, folks!
Compliance Technique: The Foot in the Door.
One way to get a person to comply with your request is to start off small. To break the ice with a small initial request that the customer can't refuse. One that commitment is made, the chances are increased that another, larger request will succeed.
Compliance Technique: Low-Balling
Starting off small, you are offered a low offer that you can't refuse and are given time to fantasize about the pleasures of having a certain something. But it turns out the offer is taken away and given to you for a larger amount. You take it, because you are sucked into the pleasure of owning that thing, the commitment
Compliance Technique: Door in the Face
Opposite of foot in the door, a large request is made, knowing the subject will decline. Then the smaller, original request is made, and the subject will most likely comply with it because they feel bad for denying the first offer. However the second offer is what the goal had been all along.
Compliance Technique: That's Not All, Folks!
A product is offered at a particular price but the seller adds, "And that's not all!" At this point, the original price is reduced or a bonus is offered to sweeten the deal. Basically - people are more likely to make a purchase when a deal seems to have improved than when the same deal is offered riht from the start.
What is a cult?
A group that devotes itself to a person, ideal, or fad.
What makes a cult different from a religion? 5 reasons
Cults think they are the "chosen ones"
Believe they have sole possession of true knowledge and are superior to sinners
They are good, others are evil
Primary goal is to accumulate wealth for the leader
Manipulate the lives of its members
Who joins cults?
Cults target those that feel alienated from society, ie. those that are depressed, lonely, or poor. Led to believe becoming a member will fill a void in their lives.
Cult Structure: What three distinct characteristics do they possess?
1) A charismatic leader who claims to have ultimate wisdom
2) An authoritarian power structure
3) Rigid boundaries
Some other characteristics of cults include:
Brainwashing to manipulate members
Survive the end of the world
Shrouded in secrecy
Rape against female members
What kind of early behaviour did Jim Jones express that foreshadowed his future?
He initiated games in which he played the role of preacher, delivering sermons to others and demanding obedience from them. What a lil shit
In high school, he showed a growing interest in religion.
Jim Jones created what kind of church and why was it easy to gain members?
His church was very liberal and offered a haven for the poor and friendless, what with its free food and medical care. It was easier to dupe these kinds of people.
Where did Jim Jones set up his second church and what was it called?
Guyana, called The People's Temple.
When Jones was about to get caught, he urged his followers to do what?
Mass suicide by "killer koolaid" poisoining. About 900 died.
23 Brainwashing Techniques
Change of diet
Peer group pressure
Removal of privacy
Sleep deprivation and fatigue
Rejection of old values
Chanting and singing
Replacement of relationships
Church of Scientology: Why was the Church of Scientology started? What is the church really like?
Started to "clear" people of unhappiness. Actually a hugely profitable organization that is mentally and physically abusing to its members.
Church of Scientology: What is it aiming to do?
Become insidious and pervasive, trying to go mainstream.
Church of Scientology: What Hollywood celebrities belong to the church
Church of Scientology: Describe its new leader, David Miscavige
High school dropout
Cunning, ruthless, paranoid
Obsessed with gaining credibility for Scientology
Church of Scientology: Describe its tactics
Uses known organizations (ie Pepsi, Sony) as sponsors to help shed its bad image
Buys massive quanities of its own books to help propel them onto the best-sellers list
Calls themselves a "philosophy"
Church of Scientology: What is its latest price list for new recruits and what do these sessions produce
$1000/hour or $12,500 for a 12.5 hour "intensive"
sessions produce a drugged-like mind-controlled euphoria that keeps the customers coming back for more
Church of Scientology: What are the "legal" goals of the Church?
To bankrupt the opposition
Church of Scientology: Why is the gov't reluctant to get involved
B/c they don't want to spend the money needed to endure a war with the Church
What are stereotypes?
A simplified, therefore inaccurate, belief about members of a social group. They are mostly negative.
What is prejudice?
Negative opinions or judgements made before the facts are known.
What is discrimination?
Acting on prjudice. This is illegal but often difficult to prove.
What is racism?
Discrimination based on race.
Sterotypes in the Media: What kinds of groups are playing similar roles over and over again in movies/tv shows? List 3 examples.
Blacks - gangsters, drop-outs, comedic sidekicks
Asians - good at math, bad drivers, thick accents
Italians - mafia men, "guidos", soccer lovers
Sterotypes in the Media: Who plays the "good guys"? Who plays the "bad guys"?
Good guys are attractive white men who are given more leeway - allowed to break the law. Bad guys are usually "ugly" and biased.
Sterotypes in the Media: Who plays the lead roles? Supporting roles?
Lead roles - white, attractive men
Supporting roles - everybody else
Sterotypes in the Media: How are certain groups mocked?
Accents, dress, physical attributes
Sterotypes in the Media: Which two groups are gnerally excluded?
The Eye of the Storm: Why did Riceville, Iowa, not experience any of the racial tension happening in many parts of the U.S. at the time?
B/c the state is predominantly white.
The Eye of the Storm: What incident prompted Jane Elliott, elementary school teacher, to do this experiment?
1) The assassination of Martin Luther King
2) Didn't want kids to grow up and be prejudiced
The Eye of the Storm: How did Jane divide her students for the experiment?
The Eye of the Storm: Restrictions or priveleges the two groups had
Blue-eyed people get more time for recess, brown-eyed can't play with blue-eyed b/c not good enough, blue-eyed sit at front of class, brown-eyed can't have seconds at lunch. Once roles reversed, so are the rules.
The Eye of the Storm: Some ways the behaviours or the feelings of the students changed during the experiment?
Brown eyed people stuck together, even if they had friends that were blue-eyed
Brown-eyed kids felt dejected
Kids start hating each other and fighting
The Eye of the Storm: Wha thappened to the group of students using the card pack from one day to the next?
First day - they felt stupid and inferior, so they spent 5.5 minutes on it
Second day - b/c their mentality changed, they had a confidence boost. they were told better and therefore acted better, completing the card pack in just 2.5 minutes
What is racial profiling?
Any action undertaken for reasons of safety, security, or public protection that relies on sterotypes rather than on a reasonable suspicion to single out an indivudal for greater scrutiny.
What are the 6 effects of racial profiling?
bad reputation for accuser and accused
resentment towards law enforcement
List some pros about racial profiling
catches criminals, sometimes
List some cons about racial profiling
high chance of not working
lumps people into a "general" category
while targeting certain groups, it may give other groups a greater license to commit crimes (ie. those in majority -- if black people are targeted, whites have a higher chance of committing crimes and not getting caught)
When did the Clark Doll Experiment take place?
Goal of the Clark Doll experiment
Study about the racial biases amongst children in the U.S.
tested young black children to determine how race related to their self-image.
compared children from segregated schools and those in integrated schools
What was the procedure of the Clark Doll experiment?
Each child was shown a white doll and a black doll and given instructions in a particular order. Such instructions include:
Show me the doll that you like best
Show me the doll that is the "nice" doll
Show me the doll that looks "bad"
Results of the Clark Doll experiment?
Many of the children consistently chose the white doll as the "nice" doll. The children became anxious when asked, "Give me the doll that looks like you." When asked to draw themselves, many of the children chose a shade of brown much lighter than their actual skin tone.
IN CONCLUSION: Children attending segregated schools were more likely to pick the white doll as the "nice one". Children had internalized racism caused by the discrimination that occurred through segregation.
CNN Doll Experiment: When did it take place?
What was the goal of the CNN Doll experiment?
Same as the CLark Doll experiment- wanted to see if anything had changed in the last 70 years.
Procedure of the CNN Doll experiment?
133 black and white children from urban and rural areas in the U.S. of different age groups; early childhood and middle childhood. Instead of dolls, this experiment presented the students with 5 illustrations of a child. The drawings were identical expect for the skin color of each child which ranged from white to dark brown and black. The testers asked questions similar to those of the Clark Doll experiment.
Results of the CNN doll experiment?
Many of the white children had high rates of white bias, where the children identified their own skin color with positive attributes and darker skin with negative ones.
76% of the older white children selected 2 dark shades as being the "dumb" child, and 66% of the younger white children selected the two dark shades as being the "mean" child.
Also, black children tended to describe their own skin color with positive attributes.
Furthermore, there were also a number of children from both races and age groups who refused to answer particular questions b/c they didn't know enough about the drawing to answer - YES! U KIDS ARE THE FUTURE OF EQUALITY!!
Milgram's Lost Letter Experiment: Goal
To examine the prejudice toward socially undesirable groups
Milgram's Lost Letter Experiment: Procedure
Stanley Milgram dispersed 400 sealed, stamped and self-addressed envelopes in public places. The letters were addressed to various entities like a random guy and favorable organizations like hospitals and undesirable ones such as friends of the Nazi Party.
Milgram's Lost Letter Experiment: Results
More people mailed letters addressed to the socially desirable groups than the ones addressed to the undesirable groups.
Medical research associates rate of return - 72%
Personal letter rate of return - 71%
Nazi Party/Communist Party friends - never seen again lol
Milgram's Lost Letter Experiment: Conclusion
There is an existing prejudice b/w social groups.
What are the four types of discrimination and explain
1) Annihilation - complete destruction (ie. Jews in WWII)
2) Expulsion - denying a certain group membership in society (ie. Japanese Canadian internment during WWII)
3) Segregation - minority groups who are forced to live separately from the rest of society (ie. Blacks in the U.S., pre 1970s)
4) Inequality of resources and opportunity - denying resources (ie. jobs) to certain groups
6 Effects of Prejudice and Discrimination on teh Indivdual
1) Acceptance - accept the negative belief and the restrictions
2) Accommodation - people accommodate themselves to the situation
3) Rationalization - won't even bother to improve their situation b/c seen as pointless
4) Voluntary Segregation - groups might separate themselves from the mainstream of society
5) Organized Protest - gain media exposure to draw attention to cause
6) Aggression - may take action against people and property
What is communication?
Giving, exchanging, or passing along information
What 4 things are the reason for why we communicate?
Communication: Physical NEeds?
many of our basic communications are survival-level messages
Communication: Social Needs?
We need to feel that we belong to a group, strengthen relationships
Communication: Ego Needs
We need reassurance as an individual, gain a sense of self-worth
Verbal or non-verbal response to a message received
How much of our time do we spend communication? How much of that time is divided into reading, writing, talking and listening?
We spend 70% of our time communicating.
What makes for good communication? What makes for bad?
Good: quiet environment, clarity, repition, intonation, body language, volume, forwardness.
Bad: muttering, noisy environment, poor speech, etc.
What is one way communication?
Communication which favours the speaker. No opportunity for the listener to interact or ask for clarification. Useful in news, formal testing, lectures.
What is two way communication?
Communication where there is interaction between the speaker and the listener. Useful in friendships, intimate classroom settings, asking for information (ie. directions)
The Laws of Forgetting: We forget __ of what we hear immediately, we forget __ of what we hear within 2 months. Of the __ we do remember, only __ is correct.
What is the average attention span of a high school student? What about an adult?
10 seconds, 17 seconds
What are the four communication styles?
Communication factors: 6 of them?
1) Speaker sends msg
2) Listener hears msg
3) Message - info being sent
4) Feedback - reaction to msg
5) Noise - that which interferes
6) Medium - the way you communicate
_____ is a form of ________ is a form of _______.
Speech, language, communication
Non-Verbal communication?? ____ is non-verbal, ____ is intonation, ______ is verbal.
Non-verbal communication includes:
symbols, body language, facial expressions, poster, clothing, and personal space.