Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: The Nervous System

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Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: The Nervous System
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2013-12-17 04:07:04
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Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: The Nervous System
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  1. 1. involves secretion of hormones by ductless glands (endocrine glands as opposed to exocrine glands)
    2. hormones transported by the circulatory system
    3. response is slow and long-lasting
    Endocrine System
  2. 1. involves transmission of nerve impulses along specific pathway fibers (nerve fibers)
    2. response is usually rapid, but short-lived
    3. useful when rapid, complex or precise control of activity is needed
    nervous system
  3. brings sensory information from sensory receptor to central nervous system
    nervous system sensory pathway
  4. processes and integrates information
    central nervous system
  5. involves initiation of response from central nervous system terminating with response by effector organ
    motor pathway
  6. Typical Vertebrate Neuron composed of...
    cell body, axon, and dendrites
  7. speed up nerve impulse transmission through salutatory conduction
    nodes of Ranvier
  8. myelin sheath around the axon composed of...
    myelinated Schwann cells
  9. carry nerve impulses from the central nervous system (CNS) to stimulate effector organs
    motor (efferent) neurons
  10. carry nerve impulses from a sense organ to the central nervous system for processing
    sensory (afferent) neurons
  11. typically connect sensory neurons to motor neurons
    interneurons
  12. 1. = supporting cells
    2. examples
    a. Schwann cells form "insulating" myelin sheath around axons 
    b. astrocytes in the brain provide structural support and a variety of other functions
    Glial Cells
  13. difference in charges across the cell membrane results in greater abundance of ________ charges in the cytoplasm relative to the surrounding interstitial fluid
    negative
  14. neuron:
    potassium ion (K+) _____ inside than outside
    higher
  15. sodium ion (Na+) and chloride ion (Cl-) _____ outside than inside
    higher
  16. cell membrane normally more _____  to K+ than to Na+ or to Cl-
    permeable
  17. 1) electrical gradient favors retention of K+ in the cytoplasm
    2) concentration gradient favors diffusion of K+ out of neuron
    overall consequence:
    leakage of K+ from cell leads to negative membrane resting potential of ...
    -70mV (equilibrium value would be -85 mV)
  18. b. stimulus typically causes ________ of the membrane
    c. if __________ reaches threshold potential then action potential generated
    depolarization
  19. biggest axons = ?
    travels?
    giant axons of the squid - travels 100m/sec
  20. 1) action potential jumps from node to node in vertebrates
    2) allows very rapid transmission of action potential
    saltatory conduction
  21. a. as sodium gate closes and sodium permeability declines, sodium gate is temporarily insensitive to stimuli (because both the activation and inactivation gates are closed at the same time; Fig. 48.11, p. 1052)
    b. sets a limit on the maximum rate at which action potentials may be generated
    refractory period
  22. amplitude of action potential (affected/unaffected) by the size of the stimulus (i.e., not graded according to stimulus strength)
    unaffected
  23. because of synapses and other microanatomical aspects action potential moves ...
    in one direction only (except in some invertebrates)
  24. Junctions Between Neurons
    Synapses:
  25. a. action potential continues from presynaptic cell to postsynaptic cell through gap junctions
    b. allow for very rapid neuron-to-neuron transfer of the action potential
    c. more common in invertebrates than in vertebrates
    electrical synapses
  26. a. involve the release of neurotransmitters from the presynaptic cell
    b. neurotransmitters may stimulate an action potential in the postsynaptic cell
    chemical synapses
  27. 1) if Na+ ion channels respond to neurotransmitter by opening, then have depolarization of the postsynaptic membrane
    2) results in EPSP or excitatory postsynaptic potential
    excitatory synapse
  28. 1) if K+ ion channels respond to neurotransmitter by opening, then have hyperpolarization of the postsynaptic membrane
    2) results in IPSP or inhibitaory postsynaptic potentia
    inhibitory synapse
  29. 1) two EPSP's from a single presynaptic neuron occur in rapid succession
    2) can have an additive effect on depolarization leading to an action potential
    temporal summation
  30. 1) result from stimuli of two or more presynatic neurons influencing the same postsynaptic neuron
    2) examples
    a) spatial summation of EPSP’s may lead to action potential
    b) spatial summation of EPSP’s & IPSP’s canceling out the action potential
    spatial summation
  31. Neurotransmitters:
    a. most common
    b. usually excitatory for skeletal muscles at neuromuscular junctions
    c. inhibitory on cardiac muscle
    acetylcholine
  32. Neurotransmitters:
    a. examples: catecholamines, dopamine, & serotonin
    b. usually restricted to the CNS
    biogenic amines
  33. Neurotransmitters:
    a. gama aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine, glutamate, & aspartate
    b. restricted to the CNS
    amino acids
  34. Neurotransmitters:
    a. substance P mediates pain (excitatory)
    b. endorphins (e.g., met-enkephalin) inhibit pain
    neuropeptides
  35. Invertebrate nervous systems:
    a. usually with a diffuse nerve net
    b. some concentration of nerve fibers and distinct sensory structures observed in jellyfish
    cnidarians
  36. Invertebrate nervous systems:
    a. some centralization into ladder-like arrangement of nerves and anterior ganglion (brain)
    b. get differentiation of a central nervous system and peripheral nervous system
    flatworms
  37. Invertebrate nervous systems:
    a. centralized into a circumoral nerve ring and pentamerous radial nerves that extend into each of the arms
    b. no "brain" exists however
    echinoderms
  38. Invertebrate nervous systems:
    a. usually consists of an anterior ganglion (“brain”) with nerve tracts into the foot and visceral mass
    b. squids have an additional pair of mantle ganglia involved in coordination of mantle contraction
    mollusks
  39. Invertebrate nervous systems:
    a. more centralization in the form of a medial solid ventral nerve cord
    b. "brain" is a ring of ganglia around the esophagus
    c. segmental ganglia give rise to segmental peripheral nerves
    annelids and arthropods
  40. Vertebrates:
    1) consists of cranial or spinal nerves
    2) nerves carry both sensory and motor pathways
    3) nerves arise segmentally from CNS
    peripheral nervous system (PNS)
  41. Vertebrates:
    1) brain
    2) spinal cord
    central nervous system (CNS)
  42. Brain:
    a) primitively associated with the sense of smell
    b) two major subdivisions
    1) telencephalon: composed of cerebral hemispheres & olfactory bulbs
    2) diencephalon: composed of thalamus and hypothalamus
    forebrain (prosencephalon)
  43. Brain:
    composed of cerebral hemispheres & olfactory bulbs
    telencephalon
  44. Brain:
    composed of thalamus and hypothalamus
    diencephalon:
  45. Brain:
    a) along with the hindbrain is part of the brain stem
    b) primitively associated with the sense of vision and visually-associated reflex behaviors (optic lobes)
    midbrain (mesencephalon)
  46. Brain:
    a) primitively associated with the senses of hearing and equilibrium
    b) subdivisions
    1) metencephalon: composed of pons and cerebellum
    2) myelencephalon: composed of the medulla oblongata
    hindbrain (rhombencephalon)
  47. Brain evolutionary trends: (3)
    • 1) increased size (relative to body size)
    • 2) compartmentalization of function
    • 3) increased complexity (associated with the elaboration of the cerebral cortex)
  48. 1) = the largest part of the human brain
    2) surface is convoluted
    cerebrum
  49. 5 cerebrum lobes:
    • 1) frontal
    • 2) parietal
    • 3) temporal
    • 4) occipital
    • 5) olfactory
    • a) not really a lobe in the human brain
    • b) also part of the limbic system
  50. 1) = the outer layer of the cerebrum 
    2) composed of unmyelinated grey matter
    3) functions in cognition (knowing, awareness, judgement)
    4) contains centers for processing sensory and motor information
    cerebral cortex
  51. association areas involved in integrating information for higher functions
    1) sensory information from different sources for complex perceptions
    2) planning voluntary movement
    3) motivation, emotion, and memory (limbic associative cortex)
    cerebral cortex
  52. a) = areas of grey matter in the cerebrum
    b) involved with planning and learning movement sequences
    basal ganglia or nuclei
  53. Left/Right?
    1) language development
    2) mathematical & learning capabilities
    3) sequential thought processes
    left
  54. Left/right?
    1) visual spatial skills
    2) musical activities
    3) artistic activities
    4) intuitive abilities
    right
  55. damage to Broca’s area in the frontal lobe
    • a) could understand language
    • b) but could not speak
  56. damage to Wernicke’s area posterior to the temporal lobe
    • a) could not understand language
    • b) but could speak
  57. 1) images areas of active brain activity
    2) ____ scans appear to confirm areas of localization associated with language and speech
    positron emission tomography; PET
  58. 1) above the midbrain though not anatomically distinct
    2) functions
    a) relay center for sensory tracts from the spinal cord to the cerebrum
    b) centers for sensation of pain, temperature, and touch
    c) Involved with emotions and alerting or arousal mechanisms
    thalamus
  59. 1) regulates body temperature, water balance, sleep and appetite
    2) acts on the pituitary gland through the release of neurosecretions
    hypothalamus
  60. 1) involves neurosecretory cells whose cell bodies lie in the hypothalamus and whose secretory ends lie in the posterior pituitary
    2) neurosecretions (including ADH and oxytocin) released into bloodstream in the posterior pituitary
    hypothalamus action on posterior pituitary
  61. 1) hypothalamus neurosecretory cells release neurosecretions into capillaries of the hypothalamus
    2) neurosecretions carried through a portal system to capillaries in the anterior pituitary
    3) cells of the anterior pituitary stimulated to release other hormones
    action on the anterior pituitary
  62. 1) occurs above and behind the thalamus
    2) contains a choroids plexus that secretes cerebrospinal fluid
    3) also includes the pineal gland, an endocrine gland that secretes melatonin, hormone involved with biological rhythms
    epithalamus
  63. 1) involves the thalamus, hypothalamus, and some inner portions of the cerebral cortex
    2) involved with producing human emotions
    3) communicates with cerebral cortex areas involved with complex learning, reasoning and personality
    4) frontal lobotomy destroys this communication
    5) also linked to memory
    the limbic system
  64. a) along with the medulla oblongata, forms the brain stem
    b) contains ascending and descending tracts to the cerebrum and thalamus
    c) functions
    1) reflex center for eye muscles
    2) also involved with processing visual and auditory information (connects head movements with visual and auditory stimuli)
    3) involved with the reticular formation which regulates sleep and arousal
    midbrain
  65. 1) composed of nerve tracts to and from the brain (these tracts cross over left to right and right to left)
    2) may be regarded as an extension of the spinal cord
    3) almost all of the cranial nerves arise from this region
    4) contains control centers for many subconscious activities (reflex arcs important)
    a) respiratory rate
    b) heart rate
    c) arteriole constriction
    d) swallowing
    hindbrain: medulla oblongata
  66. 1) lies above the medulla
    2) functions in controlling and coordinating muscular activity
    3) important in equilibrium, posture and movement
    hindbrain: cerebellum
  67. 1) connects the two halves of the cerebellum
    2) participates in some of the activities that the medulla is involved with
    hindbrain: pons
  68. 1) involves a network of neurons that extend through the medulla and midbrain up to the thalamus
    2) acts as a sensory filter
    3) regulates sleep and arousal
    hindbrain: reticular formation
  69. 5 coverings of the brain:
    • a. skin
    • b. skull
    • c. dura mater
    • d. arachnoid layer (contains cerebrospinal fluid)
    • e. pia mater
  70. spinal cord does not extend below lumbar region, but some nerves continue through vertebral canal into sacral region where they emerge
    cauda equina
  71. 1) occupies the spaces within the meninges
    2) supplies oxygen and organic nutrients from the blood
    3) protects spinal cord from jolts and blows
    cerebrospinal fluid
  72. spinal chord wrapped in membranes called
    meninges
  73. spinal cord:
    1) unmyelinated
    2) neuron cell bodies predominant here
    central core of grey matter within spinal cord
  74. spinal cord:
    1) myelinated nerve fibers (axons)
    2) consists primarily of ascending and descending nerve tracts to the brain
    white matter surrounds the grey matter
  75. 1) involved with voluntary control of muscular activities
    2) also involved with spinal reflex arcs
    motor (somatic)
  76. 1) involved in control of involuntary functions
    2) synapses (in ganglia) occur between CNS and effector
    autonomic
  77. 1) synapses located near effectors
    2) originate from cranial and sacral regions of the CNS
    3) preganglionic neurons secrete acetylcholine
    4) postganglionic fibers release acetylcholine
    5) enhances activities that gain and conserve energy
    parasympathetic
  78. 1) synapses located in chain ganglia found lateral to the spinal cord
    2) motor fibers (axons) originate from spinal cord
    3) preganglionic neurons secrete acetylcholine
    4) postganglionic fibers release norepinephrine
    5) stimulate "flight or fight" response
    sympathetic
  79. 1) active in digestive tract, pancreas, & gall bladder
    2) regulates secretion and peristalsis
    3) regulated by sympathetic & parasympathetic systems
    enteric

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