Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: The Sense Organs

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Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: The Sense Organs
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2013-12-17 15:33:09
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Biology 172 FINAL EXAM Sense Organs
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Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: The Sense Organs
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  1. a. conversion of physical or chemical stimulus to a change in membrane potential (receptor potential)
    b. strengthen of receptor potential varies with the strength of the stimulus)
    transduction
  2. a. respond to stimuli in the external environment
    b. examples: vision, hearing, smell, taste, & touch
    exteroreceptors
  3. a. respond to stimuli in the internal environment of the body
    b. example: muscle spindle (stretch receptor) in muscle
    interoreceptors
  4. a) Merkel discs (flattened disk-shaped nerve endings near the surface of the skin)
    b) Meissner corpuscles (egg-shaped mass of dendrites wrapped in capsule of connective tissue)
    c) hair root plexuses (free nerve endings wrapped around hair follicles)
    mechanoreceptors: light touch in human skin
  5. nerve endings called Pacinian corpuscles which are composed of individual dendrites each wrapped in multiple layers of connective tissue – encapsulated nerve ending
    pressure
  6. a) = stretch receptors in muscles
    b) important in reflex arcs
    muscle spindles
  7. 1) consists of a canal below the epidermis with periodically-situated vibration-sensing organs
    2) canal connected to the surface via pores that allow the entry of water
    3) vibration-sensing organ (neuromast) structure = collection of hair cells with sensory hairs imbedded in gelatinous cupula
    lateral line of fishes
  8. bending of hairs
    a) receptor potential depolarized or hyperpolarized – depends on the direction of hair bending
    b) depolarization _______ rate of action potential generation above background rate
    c) hyperpolarization ______ the rate of action potential generation below the background rate
    increases, decreases
  9. 1) typically consists of hair cells surrounding a chamber
    2) mineralized _______ in chamber deforms sensory hairs of hair cells
    • statocysts of invertebrates:
    • statolith
  10. a) involves the saccule and utricle of the inner ear
    b) hair cells in a gelatinous matrix (macula) in these structures deformed by the weight of otoliths on the hairs
    static equilibrium and linear acceleration
  11. a) response to rotational acceleration or deceleration
    b) involves the three semicircular canals arranged at right angles to each other in three dimensions
    c) hairs of the hair cells organized into a cupula within the ampullae of each semicircular canal
    d) fluid moving through semicircular canal deforms cupula and induces action potential to be generated by the hair cells
    dynamic equilibrium
  12. cold receptors respond to temperature range = 
    warm receptors respond to temperature range =
    • 10º - 40ºC 
    • 32º – 48ºC
  13. a. naked dendrites in the skin  and other tissues of the body (except the brain)
    b. may be sensitized by prostaglandins (aspirin inhibits prostaglandin synthesis)
    nociceptors
  14. 2) compound eyes 
    a) observed in arthropods
    b) each photoreceptive unit = _________
    c) compound eyes useful for detecting motion
    ommatidium
  15. Eye:
    ______ does the coarse focus adjustment, but its focus is fixed by its fixed shape
    cornea
  16. Eye:
    _____ contributes to accommodation because a small pupil size increases the depth of field
    iris
  17. a) eyeball too long
    b) nearsightedness
    c) correct with concave lens
    myopia
  18. a) eyeball too short
    b) farsightedness
    c) correct with convex lens
    hyperopia
  19. a) abnormal curvature of the cornea or lens
    b) lens correction is complex
    astigmatism

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