Syntax Final

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Syntax Final
2013-12-17 16:14:29
syntax probes teaching

Syntax study guide
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  1. What are the characteristics of good teaching practices for children who have language/learning impairments? (5)
    • Active listening (child needs to hear proper use of the language)
    • Highlight the target when talking to the child
    • Package the data about the target into a short window of time
    • Encourage the child to talk about topics that will elicit target use
    • Provide contrasts
  2. What are the 3 teaching methods and their characteristics (i.e. how to use them and when)?
    • 1. Focus stimulation
    • use after gaining attention on a task
    • comment using several instances of target
    • SLP controls topic staying within child's interest
    • Clinician talks first and last
    • Example: spill/spills/spilled-show contrasts

    • 2. Conversational recast
    • Use after child utterance using target
    • Translate target into adult grammar
    • Child controls target; only 1 instance provided
    • Child talks first, clinician last
    • Ex.: Child: Dog spill it. SLP: yes, the dog spilled it.

    • 3. Contrastive imitation
    • Use after gaining attention on materials and SLP
    • Say what I say: target and contrast
    • Non-communicative interaction, multiple trials
    • Ex.: Mary is walking to the store. She walked there yesterday, too.
  3. How one's teaching approach needs to be responsive to how much a child knows about the structure
    • Knowledge treatment
    • Focus on highlighting structure and function, not rapid output processing
  4. How to teach children who know some or all aspect of English, but don't use it correctly.

    What element should you teach first?
    • Rapid output processing of grammatical elements within short exchanges
    • Little effort put into highlighting structure/function of element

    • most salient element of IP
    • 1. Modals (contain most meaning)
    • 2. be-ing and past tense
    • 3. Pronoun case before TNS&AGR
  5. What are characteristics of standardized tests that make them impractical to use to determine whether a child knows or uses specific aspects of language?
    • They don't test English structure
    • They require a certain amount of world knowledge
    • They test a mix of intelligence and English knowledge but don't distinguish between the 2
  6. What are characteristics of language samples that make them very useful for identifying aspects of a structure a child may need to learn?
    They examine English competence without being contaminated by the effects of a child's world knowledge (use of words, phrases, categories)
  7. What information is commonly missing from language samples that is needed to perform a compete analysis of a child's grammar?
    • Modals, wh-questions, yes/no questions, negatives, indirect questions, non-finite and relative clauses
    • They also often under reveal a child's knowledge
  8. How to construct probes that validly test a child's knowledge and usage of English (example)
    Negatives & nominative case
    • Preposterous statement game
    • "You're a girl." "No I'm not."
  9. How to construct probes that validly test a child's knowledge and usage of English 

    Yes/no questions and I to C movement
    • Guess who- "Ask me if my person is a girl."
    • 20 questions
  10. How to construct probes that validly test a child's knowledge and usage of English 

    "John went somewhere and I know where. Ask me and I'll tell you."
  11. How to construct probes that validly test a child's knowledge and usage of English 

    Relative clauses
    • Sticker game with animals
    • Some toys have stickers, some don't. Clinician covers eyes and instructs child to tell her which one has sticker.
    • "This dog is sitting down. This one is standing up. One has a sticker on the bottom. I'm going to close my eyes while you look and then I want you to tell me which one has the sticker." "Which one has the sticker?" "The one that is sitting down."

    *if child fails to use relative clause, restate the question immediately follow by "...The one..."
  12. How to construct probes that validly test a child's knowledge and usage of English 

    Auxillary be
    • Act out scenarios with animals 
    • Make a dog jump up and down and model the sentence, "The dog is jumping."
    • Say to the child, "Tell me what is happening. The dog  ____."
    • Child says, "is jumping."
    • Comprehension: Set of pictures; One picture shows the action completed, the other shows action in progress. Say, "Show me he is eating."
  13. How to construct probes that validly test a child's knowledge and usage of English

    • Preposterous statement game
    • "This is a dog's head." "No it's a monkey's head."
    • Clinician, child, bear, etc., all wear hats. "Give me his hat" for comprehension or "Whose hat is this?" for production
  14. How to determine when a grammaticality, comprehension, or production probe would be appropriate for a particular structure and the order by which different probes should be given.
    • Production probes should be given first
    • Then comprehension
    • Grammaticality (Is this a good or bad sentence) works for adults, but is confusing for kids
    • Imitation when comprehension can't be used; difficult for language impaired kids
  15. Which elements cannot be tested for comprehension?
    • Nominative vs. accusative (he vs him)
    • Subject-verb agreement
  16. How adult English small clauses are similar to and different from restricted grammars of children and the language impaired.
    • Small clauses similar to Ip-less clauses of children with restricted grammar (VPs)
    • Child: Him happy. Adult: I consider him happy. small clause "Him happy" cannot stand alone
    • LI children use small clauses: Him going outside
    • LI children do not use complementizers
  17. How adult English differs from the English of children with language--‐learning impairments.
    • LI kids have CP as a single node (No C’ or C) for receiving wh-movement, does not receive I to C movement or host a complementizer
    •  IP absent (no tense, agreement, have-en, be-ing, do, to, I to C, I to V
    • Spec VP is assigned the accusative case (i.e. “him go”)
    • NP, AP, and PP can be the subject or modifier or X
  18. Transition grammars
    • CP- only for receiving Wh-movement
    • IP Might have tense and agreement and SPEC VP to SPEC IP movement
    • VP- Spec VP has accusative and V has bare verb, split V’ for 2 complements
    • NP, PP, AP okay
  19. Probing modals
    Production: preposterous: You can't do that! "Yes I can!"

    comprehension: Story with animals; heavy backpacks; distinguish between can't jump because too heavy and can jump because lighter