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2013-12-17 11:08:24
Oleokem Primer

Oleokem Primer
Show Answers:

  1. What are basic Oleochemical?
    Fatty acid, fatty alcohol, glycerol & FAME
  2. What is Oleochemical?
    Chemicals derived from plant and animal fat as opposed to chemical derived from petroleum such as ethylene, propylene & paraffin
  3. What is Feedstock for Oleochemicals?
    • 1.Animal based - lard, poultry, tallow
    • 2.Plant based- palm oil, coconut oil
  4. What is the difference between palm oil based oleochemical and petroleum based chemical?
    • 1. Renewable, replenishable
    • 2.Biodegradable, environmental friendly
    • 3.Free from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
    • 4.Processes require less energy cost & capital
    • 5.Possible to modify certain characteristics of palm for specific applications through
    • biotechnology

    • 1.Non-renewable, exhaustible
    • 2.Not readily biodegradable
    • 3.PAH may be found as contaminants
    • 4.Processes require high energy & capital
    • 5.Not possible. Petroleum deposits had been formed in th Earth millions of years ago
  5. Describe the different between enzymatic and chemical process in FAE production?
    • 1. Free/immobilised lipases(i.e. Candida rugosa)
    • 2. Milder reaction conditions
    • 3. Substrate selectivity
    • 4. Easy product recovery and no separation process required
    • 5. Environmental friendly

    • 1. Alkaline catalyst (i.e NaOH, CaO)-if oils are low FFA. Directly converted to fatty acid esters and proceeds faster than acid- catalyzed reaction.

    2. Acidic catalyst (i.e sulphonated ion exchange resin)-if oils are up to 30% FFA. Not direct converted to fatty acid esters, first converted to esters then alcoholysis of triacylglycerol using alkaline catalyst

    3. Require purification of product, corrosive
  6. Tell me FAE main uses.
    • 1. Lubricant oils-flow enhancer, viscosity index improver
    • 2. Biodiesel-Major component of biodiesel
    • 3. Rubber industries-Plasticizers, softener
    • 4. Cosmetics-Emollients, stabilizer, thickening agent
  7. What is Fatty Acid?
    Carboxylic acid often with long aliphatic tail either saturated or unsaturated.
  8. What is Fatty Alcohol? Give 1 examples.
    Aliphatic hydrocarbon chain(>= C12) either saturated or unsaturated that contain OH group.

    Eg. 1-hexadecanol
  9. How can Fatty Alcohol produced?
    • Involved hydrogenation of 3 buddy:
    • 1. Fatty acid
    • 2. Methyl esters-Frequently used
    • 3. Wax esters
  10. What are fatty acid & methyl ester routes in Fatty Alcohol production?

  11. What is Fatty Alcohol main used?
    • 1. Detergent-Surfactant, foaming/defoaming agent, emulsifier
    • 2. Paper industries-Paper defoamer
    • 3. Tobacco industries-Tobacco odor control agent
    • 4. Cosmetics-Emollient, plasticizers