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What are basic Oleochemical?
Fatty acid, fatty alcohol, glycerol & FAME
What is Oleochemical?
Chemicals derived from plant and animal fat as opposed to chemical derived from petroleum such as ethylene, propylene & paraffin
What is Feedstock for Oleochemicals?
- 1.Animal based - lard, poultry, tallow
- 2.Plant based- palm oil, coconut oil
What is the difference between palm oil based oleochemical and petroleum based chemical?
- 1. Renewable, replenishable
- 2.Biodegradable, environmental friendly
- 3.Free from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons
- 4.Processes require less energy cost & capital
- 5.Possible to modify certain characteristics of palm for specific applications through
- PETRO-BASED1.Non-renewable, exhaustible
- 2.Not readily biodegradable
- 3.PAH may be found as contaminants
- 4.Processes require high energy & capital
- 5.Not possible. Petroleum deposits had been formed in th Earth millions of years ago
Describe the different between enzymatic and chemical process in FAE production?
- 1. Free/immobilised lipases(i.e. Candida rugosa)
- 2. Milder reaction conditions
- 3. Substrate selectivity
- 4. Easy product recovery and no separation process required
- 5. Environmental friendly
- 1. Alkaline catalyst (i.e NaOH, CaO)-if oils are low FFA. Directly converted to fatty acid esters and proceeds faster than acid- catalyzed reaction.
2. Acidic catalyst
(i.e sulphonated ion exchange resin)-if oils are up to 30% FFA
. Not direct
converted to fatty acid esters, first converted to esters then alcoholysis of triacylglycerol using alkaline catalyst
3. Require purification of product, corrosive
Tell me FAE main uses.
- 1. Lubricant oils-flow enhancer, viscosity index improver
- 2. Biodiesel-Major component of biodiesel
- 3. Rubber industries-Plasticizers, softener
- 4. Cosmetics-Emollients, stabilizer, thickening agent
What is Fatty Acid?
Carboxylic acid often with long aliphatic tail either saturated or unsaturated.
What is Fatty Alcohol? Give 1 examples.
Aliphatic hydrocarbon chain(>= C12) either saturated or unsaturated that contain OH group.
How can Fatty Alcohol produced?
- Involved hydrogenation of 3 buddy:
- 1. Fatty acid
- 2. Methyl esters-Frequently used
- 3. Wax esters
What are fatty acid & methyl ester routes in Fatty Alcohol production?
What is Fatty Alcohol main used?
- 1. Detergent-Surfactant, foaming/defoaming agent, emulsifier
- 2. Paper industries-Paper defoamer
- 3. Tobacco industries-Tobacco odor control agent
- 4. Cosmetics-Emollient, plasticizers