1. What does a woman's BMD reflect cumulative history of? (4)
2. What are some health consequences of E availbility, amenorrhea, and low BMD?
- Psychological (3)
- Complications (7)
3. Which athlete are at greatest risk for low-energy availability? (4)
4. When should screening for the triad be done?
5. Prevention and treatment recommendations
1. Optimal/peak BMD in childhood adolescence, as well as energy availability, menstrual status, and exposure to other envr/genetic factors.
2. Psychological - low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, eating disorders
CV, endocrine, reproductive (infertility), GI, skeletal (stress fractures), renal, CNS complications
3. Those who restrict dietary intake, exercise for prolonged periods, vegetarian, thin-build sports
4. Pre-participation physical exam/annual check ups and when other symptoms occur
5. Multidisciplinary treatment - physician, RD, psychologist, athletic trainers.
Emphasize optimizing energy availability.
Treatment: increasing energy intake or reducing energy expenditure, resistance training, calcium, vitaminD
Estrogen therapy, bisphosphonates, leptin,