biol182 ex1 ch 14 15

Card Set Information

Author:
gizett
ID:
253595
Filename:
biol182 ex1 ch 14 15
Updated:
2013-12-21 12:52:23
Tags:
biology
Folders:

Description:
prof wolfe study guide
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user gizett on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. Define 3 major portions of the brain and characteristics
    • 1. cerebrum- 83% of brain volume
    • 2. cerebellum-10% brain volume,50% neurons
    • 3. Brain stem- everything else
  2. Define the main anatomical features of the CEREBRUM
    • divided in 2 half globes called cerebral hemispheres
    • thick folds called gyri
    • shallow groves called sulci
    • divided by longitudinal fissure
    • connected by thick bundle of nerve fibers called corpus callosum
  3. Define   GYRI
    thick folds of the cerebrum
  4. Define SULCI
    shallow grooves of the cerebrum
  5. Define LONGITUDINAL FISSURE
    it divides the hemisphere of the cerebrum
  6. Define CORPUS CALLOSUM
    thick bundle of nerve fibers that connect the hemispheres of the cerebrum
  7. List the 3 Meninges in order
    superficial to deep
    • dura mater
    • anachnoid mater
    • pia mater
  8. Define Meninges
    Brain is enveloped in 3 connective tissue membranes
  9. Define CSF
    Cerebrospinal fluid- clear colorless liquid that fills the ventricles and canals of the CNS and bathes the external surface
  10. 'What are the 3 basic functions of CSF
    • 1. Buouancy
    • 2. protection
    • 3. chemical stability
  11. Define hydrocephalus
    abnormal accumulation of CSF in the brain

    usually from a blockage in its route of flow and reabsorption
  12. What is the characteristics and treatment for HYDROCEPHALUS
    Swelling of head in infants

    treatments shunt that drains fluid from ventricles into a vein in the neck
  13. Define BBB
    • Blood-brain barrier
    • consists of a tight junction between endothelial cells that form the capillary walls
  14. What is BBB highly permeable to ????
    • H2O,
    • GLUCOSE,
    • OXYGEN
    • CO2
    • ALCOHOL
    • CAFFEINE
    • NICOTINE
    • ANESTHETICS
  15. List the regions of the brainstem
    • From rostral to caudal
    •  
    • Diencephalon
    • midbrain
    • pons
    • medulla oblongata
  16. List the parts of the Hindbrain
    • Medulla oblongata
    • pons
    • cerebellum
  17. Define Medulla Oblongata
    • all nerve fibers connecting the brain and spinal cord pass through
    • has 4 pairs of cranial nerves9,10,11,12
  18. Name some functions of the Medulla Oblongata
    • Cardiac center--  regulates heartbeat
    • vasomotor center-- reg blood pressure
    • respiratory center- reg breathing
    • motor- head, neck shoulder movement reflexes of head tongue speech
    • sensory  touch pressure temp and taste
  19. Define Pons
    Cranial nerves  5,6,7,8

    • functions
    • sleep
    • posture
    • motor -- eye movement facial expressions chewing swallowing urination and secretion of saliva and tears
    • sensory-- hearing equilibrium, facial sensations and taste
  20. Define Cerebellum
    • Largest part of hindbrain
    • 2nd largest part of total brain
    • consists of a left and right cerebellar hemisphere
    • contans more than half of brain neurons
    • has small transverse fold and shallow sulci
  21. list some functions of the cerebellum
    • motor muscle contractions and coordination
    • evaluation of sensory input textures of touch
    •      perception of 3D
    • timekeeping center
    • hearing
  22. Differentiate between the white and gray matter
    gray  is external

    white is internal (axons)
  23. list the cranial nerves that pass through the medulla, pons and midbrain
    • midbrain     3, 4
    • pons           5, 6,7 8,
    • medulla       9,10,11,12
  24. Define and list functions of the
    RETICULAR FORMATION
    * organized web of gray matter runs through brain stem

    • functions:
    • somatic motor
    • cardivascular
    • pain
    • sleep & consciousness
    • habituation(ignore stimuli)
  25. What are the two parts of the forbrain?
    diencephalon

    telencephalon / cerebrum
  26. List the 3 main parts of the diencephalon
    • 1. THALAMUS--one of each side undercerbrae
    •                      hemisphere
    •                   --motor
    •                   --memory
    •                   --emotional functions

    • 2. HYPOTHALAMUS--major control center of
    •                           endocrine and ans
    •                          --attached to pituitary
    •                             gland

    •                        functions:
    •                        hormone secretion
    •                        automomic effects
    •                        thermoregulation
    •                        food and water intake
    •                        rhythm of sleep&walking
    •                       memory
    •                        emotional behavior 

    • 3.  EPITHALAMUS--small mass of tissue
    •                        --composed primarily of the
    •                           pineal gland
    •                        functions:
    •                         produces melationin
  27. list and label lobes of the cerebrum
    • 1. FRONT LOBE
    • 2. PARIETAL LOBE
    • 3. OCCIPITAL LOBE
    • 4. TEMPORAL LOBE
    • 5. INSULA LOBE
  28. LIST AND DEFINE3 THE 3 TRACTS IN CEREBRAL WHITE MATTER
    • 1. projection tract--extend vertically
    •                         --carries info between the
    •                         cerebrum and body

    • 2. commissural tract-- cross between
    •                           hemispheres
    •                           --communication between
    •                           two sides

    • 3.  association tracts--connects different
    •                           regions of the same
    •                           hemisphere
  29. List the 3 places NEURAL INTEGRATION
    **carried out in the gray matter

    • 1. CEREBRAL CORTEX
    • 2. BASAL NUCLEI
    • 3. LIMBIC SYSTEM
  30. LIST AND DEFINE THE 4 DIFFERENT TYPES OF BRAIN WAVES
    • 1. ALPHA--awake & resting w/eyes closed
    •             --mind wandering
    •             --absent during sleep

    2. BETA-- eyes open & performing mental task

    • 3.  THERTA--children or drowsy adults
    •                --if awake & under emotional
    •                  stress

    4.  DELTA-- deep sleep in adults
  31. Define Sleep and list its restorative functions
    --Temporary state of unconsciousness from which one can awaken when stimulated

    • restorative functions:
    • brain glycogen & ATP levels increase in non-REM sleep
    • memories strengthened in REM sleep
  32. List 4 stages of SLEEP and characteristics
    • stage 1---feel drowsy,close eye, relax,feel
    •               drifting, can be easily awaken

    • stage 2---pass into light sleep
    •               eeg declines in frequency, but
    •               increases in amplitude
    •               exhibits sleep spindles

    • stage 3--- moderate to deep sleep
    •                about 20 mins after stage 1
    •                theta &delta waves appear
    •                muscles relax & vitals fall

    • stage 4 ---called slow-wave sleep
    •                muscles now very relaxed
    •                vitals at lowest
    •                more difficult to awaken
  33. Define cognition
    Range of mental processes by which we acquire and use knowledge (sensory perception, thought reasoning, judgment , memory, imagination)
  34. Define Memory and list 3 steps
    • Information Management
    • --learning (new info)
    • --Memory (storage & retrieval)
    • --forgetting (deleting trivial info)
  35. Define CEREBRAL LATERALIZATION
    *difference in the function of the cerebral hemispheres

    *develops with age
  36. Define the specialties of the Left hemisphere
    • *specialized for spoken and written language
    • *sequential and analytical reasoning(math and science)
    • *breaks informaiton into fragments and analyzes it in a linear way
  37. list the main specialties of the RIGHT HEMISPHERE
    • *perceives info in a more integrated holistic way
    • *seat of imagination and insight
    • *musical and artistic skill
    • *perception of patterns, spatial relationships
    • *comparison of sights, sound,smells,&taste
  38. Define and differentiate  between the nerve disorders
    • Epilepsy- sudden massive discharge of neurons
    •               resulting in motor convulsions,
    •               sensory & psychic disturbances, and
    •               impaired consciousness

    • migraine headaches - recurring headaches
    •               often accompanied by nausea,
    •               vomiting, dizziness, and aversion
    •               to light

    • Schizophrenia - disorder involving delusions,
    •               hallucinations, inappropriate 
    •               emotional response to situations
    •               incoherent speech and withdrawal
    •               from society

    • Bell Palsy - paralysis of the facial muscles
    •                on one side resulting in distortion
    •                of facial features
  39. Define the ANS
    Autonomic Nervous System

    • *Fully independent of our will
    • *Regulates fundamental Life functions such as
    •   heart rate and blood pressure
    • *manages a multitude of unconscious processes responsible for homeostasis

     ***understanding the ANS is critical to understanding body functions,drug interactions, and other aspects of health care***
  40. Define the VISCERAL REFLEXES
    Unconscious, automatic, stereotyped responses to stimulation
  41. What is the ARC pathway (ANS)
    • Receptors
    • afferent neurons
    • interneurons
    • efferent neurons
    • effectors
  42. What are the 2 subsystems of the ANS
    SYMPATHETIC

    PARASYMPATHETIC

    **differ in anatomy and function but often innervate the same target organs and may have cooperative or contrasting effects on them
  43. What is the SYMPATHETIC DIVISON
    • adapts the body in many ways for physical activity
    • **increases alertness, heart rate, blood pressure, air flow,
    • **fight or flight reactions
  44. Define PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISON
    has a calming effect on many body functions

    • **associated with reduced energy expenditure and normal bodily mantenance
    • **resting and digesting state
  45. What are the Sympathetic target areas and pre and post ganglionic fibers
    • Short = pre
    • long =  post

    Target area large

    **series of ganglia that lie adjacent to both sides of the spinal cord from cervical to coccygeal levels**

    **also called Thoracic lumbar division**
  46. What is the PARASYMPATHETIC DIVISION
    target areas and pre and post ganglionic fibers
    **also known as CRANIOSACRAL DIVISION--arises from the brain and sacral region of the spinal cord**

    • pre = long
    • post = short

    target area--relatively selective in its stimulation of organs
  47. List the ways that pre and post ganglionic fibers synapse in the sympathetic nervous system
    • 1. end in the ganglion they entered
    • 2. travel up or down with post fiber in another
    •     level
    • 3. pass through the sympathetic chain lead to
    •     a second set . (out of body)
  48. List the cranial nerves of the parasympathetic division?
    Nerves 3,7,9 and 10

    • 3 = oculomoter nerve
    • 7 = facial nerve
    • 9 = glossopharyngeal nerve
    • 10 = vagus nerve
  49. Define the ENTERIC NERVOUS system and characteristics
    • *Nervous system of the digestive track
    • *does innervate smooth muscle and glands
    • *over 100 million neurons embedded in the wall of the digestive track, has own reflex arc
    • *regulates motility of esophagus ,stomach and intestines , secretions of digestive enzymes and acids
    • *is regulated by both sympathetic and parasympathetic systems
  50. List and define the 2 main ACETYLCHOLINE RECEPTORS
    • 1.  MUSCARINIC-receptors different
    •                        subclasses with different
    •                        effects
    •                       - works through second
    •                         messenger systems
    •                       - both excitatory and
    •                         inhibitory

    • 2. NICOTINIC--always excitatory
    •                     - works by opening
    •                       ligand-gated channels
  51. List and define the 2 main NOREPINEPHRINE RECEPTORS
    • Fibers and receptors are called adrenergic
    • secreted primariy in sympathetic

    • 1.a--  adrenergic-  usually excitatory
    •                    --works through second
    •                       messenger systems

    • 2. B--  adrenergic  --usually inhibitory
    •                      --works though second
    •                         messenger system
  52. Define DUAL INNERVATION
    most viscera receive nerve fibers from both the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions

    • **two divisions may be antagonistic or
    •    cooperative effects on the same organ

    • **do not always innervate equally or exert
    •     equal influence
  53. List the parts of the CNS at influence the ANS
    • 1. Cerebral Cortex
    • 2. Hypothalamus
    • 3. midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata
    • 4. spinal cord

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview