Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: Muscular Systems

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Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: Muscular Systems
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2013-12-17 15:56:11
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Biology 172 FINAL EXAM Muscular Systems
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Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: Muscular Systems
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  1. each muscle fiber is a long multinucleated cell
    3. exhibits distinct striations
    4. requires direct nervous stimulation to initiate contraction
    5. often called voluntary muscle
    6. provides rapid, powerful contractions, but susceptible to fatigue
    skeletal muscle tissue
  2. 1. found in the walls of the hollow organs of the body (e.g., intestines)
    2. composed of individual spindle-shaped ells
    3. exhibit peristalsis (= rhythmic contractions)
    4. contraction response is slow, but exhibits high endurance
    5. contraction response is involuntary
    Smooth Muscle Tissue
  3. 1. found only in vertebrate hearts
    2. composed of individual striated branched cells that form a network
    3. self-contractile (involuntary)
    4. exhibits both strength and endurance
    Cardiac Muscle Tissue
  4. 1. each muscle fiber (= muscle cell) composed of many ____A___)
    2. each ____A___ composed of many ___B___ (= the individual units of muscle contraction) stacked end on end
    • A. myofibrils
    • B.┬ásarcomeres
  5. consists of a motor neuron and the muscle fibers it stimulates
    Motor Unit
  6. = the point of contact between motor neuron and a muscle fiber
    neuromuscular junction
  7. ____ ATP consumed for each "click" of a myosin head during contraction
    one
  8. for each glucose consumed by aerobic respiration _____ ATP's are generated
    30-32
  9. final products of glucose catabolism =
    carbon dioxide and water
  10. only two ATP's generated for each glucose consumed
    lactic acid fermentation
  11. _____ imbalance can lead to muscle cramping
    calcium
  12. ______ stored as glycogen in muscle and liver tissue
    glucose
  13. 1) = quick, jerky response to a single stimulus (single action potential)
    2) really observed only in lab studies involving a preparation of a muscle tissue
    twitch
  14. 1) occurs when a second stimulus is applied before the first twitch has completely relaxed
    2) effect is additive: the contraction of the second adds to the contraction response of the first
    summation
  15. 1) a sustained contraction response in a muscle preparation
    2) result when the frequency of stimuli come often enough to result in maximal summation
    tetanus
  16. 1) slow contraction speed
    2) slow myosin ATPase activity
    3) use aerobic respiration for ATP
    4) slow rate of fatigue
    5) small diameter fiber
    6) many mitochondria
    7) many capillaries
    8) high myoglobin content
    9) color: red
    slow oxidative fibers
  17. 1) fast contraction speed
    2) fast myosin ATPase activity
    3) use aerobic respiration for ATP
    4) intermediate rate of fatigue
    5) intermediate diameter fiber
    6) many mitochondria
    7) many capillaries
    8) high myoglobin content
    9) color: red to pink
    fast oxidative fibers
  18. 1) fast contraction speed
    2) fast myosin ATPase activity
    3) use glycolysis for ATP
    4) fast rate of fatigue
    5) large diameter fiber
    6) few mitochondria
    7) few capillaries
    8) low myoglobin content
    9) color: white
    fast glycolytic fibers

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