Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: Hormones and the Endocrine System

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Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: Hormones and the Endocrine System
2013-12-17 16:20:35
Biology 172 FINAL EXAM Hormones Endocrine System
Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: Hormones and the Endocrine System
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  1. 1) secrete chemicals into ducts that empty onto a surface or into a cavity or space
    2) examples
    a) sweat gland
    b) salivary gland
    exocrine glands
  2. a. secrete chemicals (hormones) directly into intercellular spaces (not through ducts)
    b. hormones then diffuse into the blood stream (not through ducts)
    c. hormones circulated through blood eventually encountering target organs
    endocrine glands
  3. target cells found near the secreting cell
  4. target cell is the same cell as the secreting cell
  5. involves neurotransmitters that diffuse across syapses to post-syaptic neuron target cells
  6. neurosecretory cell secretes neurohormones into the blood which transport these chemicals to their respective target cells
    neuroendocrine signaling
  7. Primary Functions of Hormones (5)
    • 1. maintaining homeostasis
    • 2. regulating growth and development
    • 3. controlling reproduction and reproductive cycles
    • 4. regulating energy metabolism
    • 5. influencing behavior
  8. examples
    a. insulin
    b. glucagon
    c. growth hormone
    d. oxytocin
    e. calcitonin
    f. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    long polymers of amino acids
  9. 1. derivatives of cholesterol
    2. examples
    a. testosterone
    b. estradiol
    c. cortisol
    Steroid Hormones
  10. 1. derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine
    2. examples
    a. tyrosine
    b. thyroxine
    c. epinephrine
  11. a. stimulate the production of hormones from other endocrine glands
    b. example: thyroid-stimulating hormone produced by the pituitary stimulates the thyroid to release thyroxine)
    tropic hormones
  12. a. stimulate cells to behave in a certain way
    b. example: thyroxine stimulates increased metabolic rate and growth of cells
    nontropic hormone
  13. Water-Soluble Hormones
    mainly amines and polypeptides
  14. Lipid-Soluble Hormones
    mainly steroid hormones
  15. 1. found beneath the brain connected to the hypothalamus
    2. functions as a "master" gland by secreting hormones that affect the functioning of other endocrine glands (produces tropic hormones)
    3. really two glands in one: the anterior and posterior
    Pituitary Gland
  16. 1) terminal ends of hypothalamic neurons release hormones from this section of the pituitary
    2) thus, these hormones are ultimately the product of the hypothalamus
    3) hormones
    a) antidiuretic hormone (ADH; acts on kidney tubules)
    b) oxytocin (acts on mammary glands and uterine muscles)
    posterior pituitary or neurohypophysis
  17. 1) stimulated to secrete hormones by chemicals (releasing factors) released by neurosecretory cells in the hypothalamus
    2) releasing factors transported into the anterior pituitary via a portal system
    3) hormones of the anterior pituitary
    a) growth hormone (GH)
    b) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    c) adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    d) gonadotropins 
    e) melanin-stimulating hormone (MSH)
    f) prolactin
    anterior pituitary or adenohypophysis
  18. 1) acts on the liver, stimulating it to release several polypeptide hormones (insulin-like growth factors, IGFs)
    2) stimulates amino acid uptake and protein synthesis in target cells
    3) ultimately stimulates cell growth (cell size and number), especially in muscle and bone
    4) stimulates fat breakdown
    6) abnormalities
    a) undersecretion during growing years =dwarfism
    b) oversecretion during growing years = gigantism
    c) excess GH after growth is complete = acromegaly
    growth hormone (GH)
  19. 1) stimulates the release of thyroxine and triiothyronine by the thyroid
    2) thyroxine and triiodothyronine increase glucose catabolism and body heat production
    thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
  20. 1) stimulates the release of glucocorticoids (e.g., cortisol) from the adrenal cortex
    2) glucocorticoids increase levels of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids in the blood
    adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
  21. 1) follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
    2) interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH)
    3) luteinizing hormone (LH)
  22. 1. found in the brain
    2. associated with body responses to light
    3. secretes melatonin which is associated with biological rhythms
    Pineal Gland
  23. 1. found in the neck just below the larynx
    2. its hormones require iodine
    3. hormones stored in thyroid follicles
  24. 1) increase glucose metabolism and body heat production (thus increases metabolic rate of the body)
    2) negative feedback mechanism involved in regulating levels
    thyroxine (T4) & triiodothyronine (T3) (from Thyroid)
  25. calcitonin ______ calcium levels in the blood by stimulating calcium deposition in bone
  26. swelling of the thyroid due to lack of iodine
  27. 1) = reduced thyroid activity
    2) leads to reduced metabolic activity and alertness
  28. 1) = accelerated thyroid activity
    2) leads elevated metabolic activity
    3) may lead to Graves' disease
  29. 1. four small glands located on the posterior side of the thyroid
    2. secretes parathyroid hormone (PTH) which acts in opposition to calcitonin
    Parathyroid Glands
  30. a. increases blood calcium levels by stimulating the release of calcium from bone
    b. reduces excretion of calcium by kidneys
    c. converts inactive vitamin D to its active form
    parathyroid hormone (PTH)
  31. 1. endocrine function associated with the islets of Langerhans
    2. pancreatic hormones
    a. glucagon
    b. insulin
  32. 1) secreted by alpha cells
    2) functions
    a) stimulates glycogenolysis (breakdown of glycogen) in the liver
    b) stimulates gluconeogenesis (synthesis of glucose) in the liver
    c) results in elevating blood glucose levels
  33. 2) secreted by beta cells
    3) functions
    a) stimulates glucose uptake by the liver
    b) stimulates glycogen synthesis in the liver and muscle cells
    c) results in lowering blood glucose levels
  34. indicated by high blood glucose levels and the presence of glucose in the urine after eating foods rich in glucose
    diabetes mellitus
  35. a) sometimes called juvenile diabetes or early-onset diabetes or insulin- dependent diabetes
    b) results when not enough insulin is produced, probably resulting from damage to beta cells (typically autoimmune disease during childhood)
    c) treatment involves insulin injections
    Type I diabetes
  36. a) sometimes called late-onset diabetes or non- insulin-independent diabetes
    b) results when the number of insulin receptors on target cells decline
    c) treatment involves weight loss, diet, and exercise
    Type II diabetes
  37. 1. found on the tops of the kidneys
    2. important in short-term and long-term responses of the body to stress
    3. actually composed of two separate glands
    Adrenal Glands
  38. 1) = inner portion of the adrenal gland
    2) secrete catecholamines adrenalin (epinephrine) and noradrenalin (norepinephrine) which prepare the body for it's flight-or-fight response
    3) these hormones also function as neurotransmitters in the nervous system
    adrenal medulla
  39. 1) the outer layer
    2) hormones
    a) glucocorticoids (e.g., cortisol)
    b) mineralcorticoids (e.g., aldosterone) 
    c) sex steroids
    adrenal cortex
  40. 1) stimulate glucose production for energy metabolism
    2) pharmacological doses inhibit inflammation
    glucocorticoids (e.g., cortisol)
  41. involved with maintaining electrolyte balances and influencing water conservation by the body
    mineralcorticoids (e.g., aldosterone)
  42. hormones identical to sex hormones produced by the testes and ovaries
    sex steroids
  43. a. produce androgens (e.g., testosterone)
    b. hormones important in the development and maintenance of the male reproductive system
    c. also influence male secondary sex characteristics
    Gonads: testes
  44. a. produce estrogens (e.g., estradiol)
    b. hormones important in the development and maintenance of the female reproductive system
    c. also influence female secondary sex characteristics
    Gonads: ovaries
  45. 1. found in the mediastinum
    2. secretes thymosin
  46. 1. atrial natriuretic hormone (ANH)
    2. secreted by the wall of the atrium of the heart
  47. 1. functions as an endocrine gland during pregnancy
    2. hormones
    a. chorionic gonadotropin
    b. estrogen
    c. progesterone