Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: Body Defenses and Immunity

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  1. types of disease (6)
    • a. pathogenic organisms
    • b. genetic disorders
    • c. toxic chemicals
    • d. other environmental factors
    • e. physical damage to organs
    • f. nutritional disorders
  2. 1) viruses (e.g., flu virus, smallpox, chickenpox, retroviruses, etc.)
    2) bacteria (e.g., syphilis, Lyme disease, chlamydia, salmonella, etc.)
    3) protozoa (e.g., malaria, African sleeping sickness, etc.)
    4) fungi
    5) metazoan parasites (e.g., flukes, cestodes, roundworms, etc.)
    types of pathogens
  3. a. defense mechanisms that do not involve a specific response to a specific pathogen
    b. no memory associated with nonspecific defense mechanisms
    c. does require recognition of self versus non-self
    innate immunity
  4. may involve
    1) barrier defenses (skin and mucous membranes)
    2) dilution and bulk flow removal (mucus, tears, sweating, vomiting, urination, defecation)
    3) special secretions (sebaceous fluids, lysozyme, digestive juice acid and enzymes, vaginal acid)
    4) normal flora
    5) cellular defenses (phagocytic cells, natural killer cells, antimicrobial proteins, inflammatory response)
    e. found in all animals
    innate immunity
  5. a. a specific response occurs against a specific pathogen or foreign material
    b. response exhibits a memory (e.g., secondary exposures result in more rapid responses than did the initial exposures)
    c. involves both humoral (antibodies) and cell-mediated responses
    d. occurs in vertebrates
    acquired (adaptive) immunity
  6. 1) washes pathogens from the surface of skin
    2) also contains the enzyme lysozyme which destroys bacteria
  7. a. digestive system enzymes
    b. lysozyme
    c. eosinophils adhere to metazoan parasites and secrete destructive enzymes
    enzymes that digest potential pathogens as though they were food
  8. a. comprise 60-70% of the leukocytes
    b. exhibit chemotaxis towards damaged areas
    c. can migrate out of blood vessels into surrounding tissues via amoeboid movement
    d. phagocytosis of very small particles
    e. self destruct eventually
    f. may result in the accumulation of pus
  9. a. comprise about 5% of the leukocytes
    b. migrate into tissues and develop into macrophages 
    c. become fixed in organs and connective tissues
    d. phagocytosis of large particles
    e. in addition to consuming pathogenic cells, macrophages remove damaged cells
  10. a. ingest microbes in a way similar to macrophages
    b. but primary role involves stimulating the development of acquire immunity
    dendritic cells
  11. 1. destroy virus-infected cells and abnormal cells
    2. attack the cell membrane of the target cell
    Natural Killer (NK) Cells
  12. a. involves some 20 different proteins that work cooperatively to cause lysis of pathogenic cells
    b. complement proteins coat pathogens
    c. may also stimulate phagocytosis
    d. also involved with specific defense mechanisms
    complement system
  13. a. provides general protection against viral infections by rendering protection to cells not yet infected by viruses
    b. may also activate phagocytic cells
    c. produced by cells infected by viruses
  14. a. secreted by macrophages
    b. destroy pathogens by various mechanisms
  15. damaged basophils and mast cells release _____ which causes vasodilation and edema
  16. other damaged cells release ______ which promote blood flow to damaged area
  17. a. increased blood flow to damaged area brings in defensive cells and delivers clotting elements
    b. phagocytes consume pathogens and damaged cells (chemotaxis involved)
    c. clotting seals damaged area from rest of the body
    d. stimulate manufacturing of leukocytes from bone marrow
    beneficial consequences of inflammation
  18. a. pressure due to swelling causes pain
    b. some tissue damage may result
    c. systemic response possible: anaphylactic shock
    adverse consequences of inflammation response
  19. a. arise as capillaries in the tissues
    b. capillaries combine together into larger vessels similar to veins
    c. possess one-way valves
    d. intercepted by lymph nodes at certain locations
    e. contain a fluid, the lymph
    lymphatic vessels
  20. a. thymus
    b. tonsils
    c. adenoids
    d. appendix
    e. spleen
    f. bone marrow
    g. lymph nodes
    lymphatic organs
  21. 1) involves antibodies (immunoglobulins secreted by B cells) dissolved in the blood plasma
    2) demonstrated by the manifestation of its response upon transfer of plasma alone
    3) provides defense against bacteria, bacterial toxins & viruses
    humoral immunity
  22. 1) involves the activities of specific white blood cells (T cells)
    2) cannot be demonstrated in transfers of plasma alone; cellular components of the blood must be present
    3) provides defense against cancer cells, virus-infected cells, fungi, animal parasites, & foreign cells from transplants
    cell-mediated immunity
  23. 1) a simple Y-shaped antibody molecule
    2) most abundant of the circulating antibodies
    3) readily crosses membranes, including the placenta, conferring passive immunity to the fetus
    4) binds to foreign cells, foreign proteins, and viruses
    5) activates complement
    6) most important in humoral immune responses
  24. 1) composed of five Y-shaped monomers joined by their stems (pentamer)
    2) multiple antigen binding sites make them good at cross-linking antigens
    3) function in agglutination and complement reactions
    4) first of the circulating antibodies to appear in the plasma in response to initial exposure to antigen
    5) too large to cross the placenta
  25. 1) a dimer of two Y-shaped antibodies
    2) common in body secretions (including colostrum)
    3) prevents the adherence of bacteria and viruses to body surfaces
  26. 1) a simple Y-shaped antibody molecule
    2) found on surfaces of B cells
    3) act as antigen receptors on B cells
  27. 1) a simple Y-shaped antibody molecule that is larger than IgG
    2) generally attached to mast cells and basophils
    3) stimulate release of histamine by these cells when activated by antigen
  28. 1) found on most cells of the body
    2) when such cells infected by intracellular pathogen or become cancerous, they present corresponding antigens using the class I MHC
    3) primary cell type that recognize these MHC-antigen complexes are cytotoxic T cells
    class I MHC
  29. 1) found on macrophages, dendritic cells, and B cells (antigen-presenting cells)
    2) antigen-presenting cells internalize antigen (usually via phagocytosis) and then present it using class II MHC
    3) primary cell type that recognize these MHC-antigen complexes are helper T cells
    class II MHC's
  30. a. originate in the bone marrow but mature in the thymus gland
    b. also possess antigen receptors
    c. activated when infected cell or macrophage presents antigen
    d. involved primarily with cell-mediated responses
    T cells
  31. ______ T cells (TC) kill infected cells and cancer cells (cell-mediated immunity)
    cytotoxic T cells (TC)
  32. ______ T cells (TH) secrete cytokines that regulate both T and B cells
  33. _____ T cells suppress response when antigen no longer present
  34. 1. immune response mounted against one's own cells
    2. examples
    a. lupus erythematosus
    b. rheumatoid arthritis 
    c. rheumatic fever
    d. insulin-dependent diabetes
    Autoimmune Diseases
  35. 1. failure of the immune system to function properly
    2. examples
    a. SCID
    1) SCID = severe combined immunodeficiency
    2) failure of the immune system
    3) example: ADA deficiency
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Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: Body Defenses and Immunity
Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: Body Defenses and Immunity
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