Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: Ecological Principles

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  1. word "ecology" coined from Greek word "oikos", which means...
    "house" or "place to live"
  2. 1. the study of the interaction of organisms with their environments
    2. involves understanding biotic and abiotic factors influencing the distributions and abundance of living things
  3. 1. population growth
    2. competition between species
    3. trophic relationships
    4. symbiotic relationships
    5. interaction with the physical environment
    6. species diversity
    7. ecosystem change (succession)
    8. human impacts on the environment
    Scope of Ecology
  4. a. dispersal
    b. behavior
    c. species interactions
    d. competition for common resources
    e. predator-prey relationships
    f. symbiotic associations
    biotic factors
  5. a. temperature
    b. water
    c. light
    d. salinity
    e. wind
    f. currents
    g. substrate
    abiotic factors
  6. range of an environmental gradient within which a species may survive
    zone of tolerance
  7. range of an environmental gradient that lie outside the range of tolerance
    zone of intolerance
  8. range within the range of tolerance that exhibits the characteristics that a species are best suited to
    optimum range
  9. range within the range of tolerance that lies
    zone of physiological stress
  10. fate of solar radiation reaching the earth
    • a) reflection
    • b) absorbance
    • c) radiation
  11. lines of constant temperature
  12. below surface zone of mixing, see a sudden drop in temperature before reaching the deep cold waters
  13. a) uniformly cold at all depths
    b) no thermocline
    high latitudes
  14. a. warm air rises and cools as it expands to fill a larger volume
    b. cooling results in _______
    c. eventually dry air sinks
    precipitation (rainfall)
  15. a) warm air rising (atmospheric low) 
    b) called the doldrums
    c) considerable rainfall (precipitation) at these latitude
  16. a) cool dry air sinks at these latitudes
    b) called the horse latitudes
    c) very little rainfall at these latitudes
    d) these latitudes characterized by major deserts
    30° N & S latitude
  17. a) moist air rises at these latitudes
    b) much rainfall associated with these latitudes
    60 N & S latitude
  18. major types of ecological assemblages that occupy broad geographic regions of land or water
  19. a. primarily influenced by light and temperature changes with latitude and with depth
    b. salinity (salt content) is also an important factor
    aquatic biomes
  20. a. primarily influenced by temperature and balance between precipitation and evaporation
    b. climograph of temperature versus rainfall good predictor of terrestrial biome type
    c. latitude and/or altitude also a good predictor
    terrestrial biomes
  21. 1) standing bodies of water (usually freshwater)
    2) influenced by light penetration and water stratification
    3) most important chemical parameters to consider: dissolved oxygen levels and inorganic nutrients
    4) oligotrophic versus eutrophic
    5) zonation
    6) autotrophs: attachment bottom plants (limited by light penetration) & phytoplankton
    7) animals: zooplankton & fish in water column, benthic animals include snails, worms, & crustaceans
    8) human impacts: pollution from runoff
    9) seasonal turnover
  22. water column over the shallow bottom environment when that bottom environment is shallow enough to support benthic plants
    littoral zone (lakes): pelagic zone (the water column)
  23. water column over the deeper portions of the lake
    limnetic zone
  24. water column region shallow enough to support pelagic plant life
    photic zone (lake)
  25. depth zone below the photic zone
    aphotic zone
  26. seasonal turnover in temperate lakes:
    1) ice at the surface
    2) densest water (ca. 4°C) near bottom
    3) colder water between ice and deeper water
  27. seasonal turnover in temperate lakes:
    1) surface ice melts and warms to 4°C and sinks
    2) get turnover of water
  28. seasonal turnover in temperate lakes:
    1) low density warm surface water
    2) cooler deeper water near bottom
    3) thermocline between
  29. seasonal turnover in temperate lakes:
    1) cooling of surface water
    2) get vertical mixing again
  30. 1) water covers the environment long enough to support aquatic plants
    2) high organic production leads to lots of decomposition and low oxygen
    3) autotrophs: plants that tolerate immersion mainly attached bottom plants (grasses, floating plants & mangroves)
    4) animals: birds, insects, small mammals, alligators
    5) human impacts: dredging and filling
  31. 1) moving water
    a) headwaters clear and swift-moving
    b) smaller tributaries join to form larger, slower-moving streams and rivers
    2) headwaters high in oxygen
    3) nutrients increase downstream
    4) bottom
    a) headwaters narrow with rocky bottoms
    b) downstream sediment-covered & muddy bottoms
    5) autotrophs: some attached bottom plants, alga covering rocks in faster moving regions, slower moving areas with phytoplankton supported by nutrients, leaf litter and other terrestrial plant debris contributes as well
    6) animals: fishes and invertebrates
    7) human impacts: pollution from runoff, damming of rivers, channelizing streams
    streams and rivers
  32. 1) typically semi-enclosed bodies of water along the ocean coast
    2) usually site of freshwater entry into the ocean
    3) high variation in salinity
    4) high biological productivity
    5) autotrophs: extremely productive, saltmarsh grasses and mangroves, decomposition of plant organic matter important
    6) animals: worms, oysters, crabs, important commercial fish species
    7) human impacts: pollution from upstream, dredging and filling
  33. 1) marked by the rise and fall of tides
    2) different levels of exposure to organisms depending upon the tidal range, steepness of the shoreline, & substrate type
    3) environmental extremes dominate
    4) autotrophs: attached algae on rocky bottoms, particulate bottoms not much plant life (sometimes sea grasses)
    5) animals: depends upon the substrates
    6) human impacts: oil pollution, recreational impacts
    intertidal zone
  34. 1) blue water, three-dimensional
    2) surface currents & vertical mixing (or lack of it) important in the distribution of life and productivity
    3) represents about 70% of the earth's surface
    4) oxygen levels relatively high
    5) nutrients tend to be low
    6) water column zones
    a) neritic zone
    b) oceanic zone
    c) photic zone
    d) aphotic zone
    7) autotrophs: productivity tends to be low, phytoplankton
    8) animals: zooplankton, fish, large marine mammals
    9) human impacts: overfishing
    oceanic pelagic biome
  35. water column lying over the continental shelf
    neritic zone
  36. water column lying over the deep ocean
    oceanic zone
  37. 1) bottom environment whose characteristics vary according to depth and substrate type
    2) shallow environments with plenty of light & water motion
    3) deeper environments less-to-no light, less water motion, lots of sedimentation (e.g., abyssal zone)
    4) subdivisions
    a) continental shelf
    b) abyssal
    5) autotrophs
    a) limited to portion of the bottom shallow enough to be in the photic zone
    b) depends upon bottom substrate
    c) deep waters depend on organic detritus raining down from above
    d) hydrothermal vents sites of chemosynthetic organisms
    6) animals: lots of benthic invertebrates (worms, crabs, clams, anemones, etc.) and bottom-associated fish
    7) human impacts: overfishing, coastal pollution, organic matter from sewage may affect deeper environment
    marine benthic zone
  38. 1) relatively shallow (<200 m) extensions of the continents below sea level
    2) relatively warm
    3) most is shallow enough to support nethic plants
    continental shelf
  39. 1) very deep region of the ocean floor
    2) cold and dark
    3) bottom covered in fine sediments
  40. 1) constructed from the skeletons of living organisms (mainly coral and coralline algae)
    2) limited to shallow tropical-to-subtropical seas
    3) high oxygen and low nutrients
    4) very diverse and highly productive ecosystems
    5) autotrophs: turf algae, seaweeds, symbiotic algae living in the tissues of coral
    6) animals: coral, fish, lots of different invertebrate species
    7) human impacts: physical damage to reefs, overfishing, eutrophication, global warming
    coral reefs
  41. 1) physical environment: warm and moist climates, tend to be equatorial to subequatorial
    2) autotrophs: form a thick stratified canopy, beneath canopy many layers, shaded environment
    3) animals: great diversity of insects, reptiles, amphibians, birds, small arboreal mammals
    4) human impacts: deforestation to create urban and agricultural lands
    tropical forests
  42. 1) physical environment: dry, located near horse latitudes, great extremes in temperature
    2) autotrophs: hardy vegetation that can store water (cactus), adaptations to hot & arid environments, C4 & CAM plants common
    3) animals: reptiles, and arthropods (scorpions & insects), seed-eating rodents, with adaptations to minimize evaporative water loss
    4) human impacts: irrigation
  43. 1) physical environment: equatorial to sub-equatorial, seasonal rainfall, but often relatively dry, warm
    2) autotrophs: tall grasses with scattered trees fire-adapted species
    3) animals: large herbivorous grazers and large predators
    4) human impacts: cattle ranching, farming, overhunting
  44. 1) physical environment: midlatitudes, somewhat coastal, seasonal rainfall with occasional long dry spells, cool winters & hot summers
    2) autotrophs: shrubs and small trees, drought resistance important
    3) animals: small mammals from mice to deer, insects, birds, reptiles
    4) human impacts: urbanization & agriculture
  45. 1) physical environment: temperate latitudes, highly seasonal rainfall and temperature differences
    2) autotrophs: mainly grasses, fire-adapted species
    3) animals: large and small grazers
    4) human impacts: urbanization & agriculture
    temperate grasslands
  46. 1) physical environment: high latitude (just below tundra), lots of rainfall, very cold winters, warm summers
    2) autotrophs: conifers dominate
    3) animals: migratory birds, bears, moose,
    4) human impacts: deforestation, harvesting lumber
    coniferous forest
  47. 1) physical environment: midlatitudes, mainly northern hemisphere, significant seasonal rainfall, cold winters, hot & humid summers
    2) autotrophs: distinct closed canopy (but not as thick and complex as tropical forests), broadleaf trees as opposed to conifers
    3) animals: many hibernating mammals such as bears,
    4) human impacts: urbanization & clearing for agriculture, heavily settled by people
    temperate broadleaf forest
  48. 1) physical environment: high latitudes, very cold, can be dry, can have permafrost
    2) autotrophs: small herbaceous plants, lichens, grasses
    3) animals: large migratory grazers adapted for cold (e.g., caribou), musk ox, also
    4) bears, wolves, migratory birds
    5) human impacts: not intensively settled, but often used for mineral & oil extraction
  49. no strong interactions among individuals and/or homogeneous
    random dispersion pattern
  50. usually suggests social groups (animals) or heterogeneity in environmental characteristics
    clumped dispersion pattern
  51. usually indicative of territorial species
    uniform dispersion pattern
  52. 1) high juvenile survival until old age when mortality increases rapidly
    2) examples: humans and elephants
    type I survivorship curves
  53. 1) mortality rate is constant (independent of age) throughout life
    2) examples: squirrels and many birds
    type II survivorship curves
  54. 1) juvenile mortality is very high
    2) very few individuals live to an old age
    3) examples: many broadcast-spawning species suchs as oysters
    type III survivorship curves
  55. hypothetical example of a single-celled organism that divides at a constant rate
    exponential growth
  56. a. populations cannot increase exponentially indefinitely
    b. population growth is really the net outcome of the following processes: births, deaths, immigrations, & emigrations
  57. 1) maximum sustainable population size in a given environment
    2) also known as the equilibrium density
    3) if population size exceeds K, then population will decrease
    4) if population size < K, then population will increase
    carrying capacity (K)
  58. 1) = factors that change in response to the population
    2) usually operating with a significant effect when population size is near K, the carrying capacity
    3) factors
    a) limiting resources (e.g., food and shelter)
    b) production of toxic wastes
    c) infectious diseases
    d) predation
    e) stress
    f) emigration
    g) territoriality
    density-dependent factors ("self-regulating" populations)
  59. 1) = factors not related to population size
    2) may exert an effect upon any population size value
    3) examples include unpredictable catastrophic events
    a) severe storms and flooding
    b) earthquakes and volcanoes
    c) sudden unpredictable severe cold spells
    d) catastrophic meteorite impacts
    density-independent factors
  60. "no two similar species occupy the same niche at the same time"
    competitive exclusion principle
  61. 1) extinction of one species from the shared habitat (e.g., barnacles)
    2) resource partitioning a) potential competing species "split" the niche b) Anolis lizards in a forest
    3) character displacement
    a) two similar species evolve in such a way as to become different from each other by accentuating their initial minor differences
    b) example of Galapagos finch beak sizes
    possible outcomes of competition
  62. possible outcomes
    a. oscillations in population sizes (e.g., hare and lynx)
    b. coevolution between predator and prey
    1) prey evolves adaptations that minimize predation
    a) physical defenses (e.g., spines & shells)
    b) coloration
    1) cryptic coloration
    2) aposematic coloration
    c) mimicry (involves both body shape and coloration)
    1) Batesian mimicry
    2) Müllerian mimicry
    2) predator evolves adaptations enhancing predator's ability to obtain prey
    a) adaptations for grasping prey (e.g., claws, hooks & fangs)
    b) mimicry (e.g., frogfish & snapping turtle)
    Predator-Prey Relationships
  63. a species whose presence in the community exerts a significant influence on the structure of that community b. examples
    1) intertidal sea stars 
    2 sea otters and kelp forests
    keystone species concept
  64. a. a species that influences community structure by making physical changes to the environment
    b. examples
    1) beavers that build dams in streams
    2) reef-building coral
    foundation species (ecosystem engineers)
  65. both partners benefit (+/+)
  66. symbiont benefits with little effect on the host (+/0)
  67. symbiont benefits to the detriment of the host (+/-)
  68. 1) corals & zooxanthellae
    2) acacia trees & ants
  69. 1) remora & shark
    2) cattle egret & cattle
  70. 1) Trypanosoma in humans (causes African sleeping sickness)
    2) tapeworms in vertebrates
  71. 1st trophic level
    primary producers
  72. 2nd trophic level
    herbivores or primary consumers
  73. 3rd+ trophic levels
    carnivores or secondary (or higher level) consumers
  74. highest trophic leve
    top carnivore
  75. = the amount of light energy converted into chemical energy by photosynthesis
    gross primary production (GPP)
  76. consumption of chemical energy by primary producers
    respiration (R)
  77. chemical energy stored in primary producers after respiration
    net primary production (NPP)
  78. process of how ecosystems change through time
    ecological succession
  79. a. involves starting off with a new substrate
    b. examples
    1) new lava flows
    2) rock left after glacier retreat
    primary succession
  80. a. severe disturbance cleared away existing community without wiping out existing substrate
    b. examples
    1) substrate left behind after a forest fire  
    2) abandoned farmland
    secondary succession
  81. a. initially species diversity increases but then decreases as competitive interactions eliminate lesser competitors
    b. Competitive Exclusion Model
    no disturbance
  82. a. occasional disturbances (e.g., major storms) prevent competitive exclusion from occurring
    b. Intermediate Disturbance Model
    occasional strong disturbance
  83. a. constant severe environment with only a few species capable of surviving
    b. potential competing species are rare
    c. Colonial Model
    constant disturbance
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Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: Ecological Principles
Biology 172 FINAL EXAM: Ecological Principles
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