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Aristotle's view on Emotions
- How was it different compared to others' views?
- A hearer is more likely to believe in a good person than a bad person
- People are persuaded when what is said stirs emotions
- People are persuaded by argument that seems truthful
According to Charles Darwin, where do our emotions come from?
Habits (reflex-like mechanisms) that in our evolutionary or individual past had once been useful
Why did Charles Darwin argue that emotions are universal?
Emotions link us to our past --> to the past of our ancestors and to our own infancy
What was the James-Lange Theory of Emotions?
- James reverse the traditional belief that emotion results from perception of an eventPerception causes bodily reactions that are then experienced as emotions
- The experience of emotions is the set of changes of the autonomic nervous system
- Bear --> Run Away --> "fear"
What was the location of Phineas Gage's brain damage?
What were his behavioral Repercussions?
Why is his story important?
- Damage to the orbital frontal region
- Affected ability to anticipate future and plan accordingly within complex social environment, sense of responsibility toward self and others, ability to orchestrate one's survival deliberately, at the command of one's free will
- First case to suggest that damage to specific regions of the brain might affect personality and behavior
What are the General functions of the cerebral cortex versus the sub-cortical structures in emotional behavior?
- Subcortical Regions
- Associated with emotions (e.g., amygdala, hypothalamus, limbic system)
- Cerebral CortexModulate the output of these subcortical structures
- Emotions would be uncoordinated, uncontrolled with damage
Describe the general methodology and results of Schachter & Singer's experiment.
2-Factor Theory of Emotions
- Subjects injected with epinephrine (adrenaline)
- Uninformed = heightened emotions
- Informed = less emotions
What were the general findings of the Dutton & Aron experiments?
- Subjects had female approach them so sexual imagery increased
- Effects increased waling across 200 ft bridge
- Transfer of Arousal
Be familiar with the temporal characteristics/differences between expressions,
emotional disorders, and
- Emotions: Last a few seconds
- Autonomic Changes: Last a few seconds
- Self-reported emotions: few minute and few hours
- Moods: Hours, days or weeks; lacks intentionality
- Emotional Disorders: Weeks or months
- Personality Traits: Lasts a lifetime
What is Darwin's theory of evolution in terms of the process of natural selection and all pertinent terms?
- Theory of Evolution:
- The reproductive capacity of all living organisms allow for many more offspring that can survive in a given environment
- Among the offspring of any species, there are vast individual differences, some of which are more conducive than other
- This results in the survival of the fittest
Characteristics that allow the individual to be adapted to the environment are selected for; disadvantageous characteristics are selected against
Features of the physical or social environment that determines how individuals need to evolve in order to survive and reproduce
: Occurs within a sex for access to mates
Process by which one sex selects specific kinds of traits in the other sex
: Genetically based traits that allow organisms to respond well to specific selection pressures, and to survive and reproduce
Traits that are thought to be byproducts of other adaptations; serve no apparent evolutionary function in-and-of themselves
: A process in which a structure or feature acquired a function that is different than the original function
In what ways are emotions adaptations?
- Emotions have some basis in our genes
- Enable rapid orientation to events in the environment
- coordinate the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, various muscle groups, and facial expressions to enable more adaptive responses to events in the environment
What are the 2 different self-construals?
- Independent Self-Construal (Individualism)The self is autonomous and separate from others
- Assert one's distinctiveness and independence
- When explaining human behavior,the focus is on internal causes, such as one's own disposition or preference (personality), which are thought of as stable across time and social context
- Interdependent Self-Construal (Collectivism)
- The self is fundamentally connected with peopleImperative to find one's status, and role within the community an other collectives
- In explaining human behavior, the emphasis is on the social context and the situational influences on behavior
Be familiar with the values approach to studying cultural variation in emotional expression.
- Seeks to understand cultural differences in emotion in terms of values
- These values govern how we as members of a culture coexist in communities and accomplish tasks like allocating resources
- Members of cultures that differ in the specific values should experiencedifferent elicitors of emotions related to that value
Hypercognized: Emotion is recognized, has special names, and is the subjects of social discussion
Hypocognized: Emotions that are barely notice; in some cultures; not conceptualized or commented on.
Cultural differences- General methodologies and results from Ekman & Friesen
- Thought to influence how and to whom it is appropriate to express different emotions
- Learn these rules from people around us, and cultures vary somewhat in their rules and expectations
- Ekman & Friesen:When alone, they displayed similar facial expressions
- During phase 3, Japanese smiled more and inhibited negative expressions more than Americans
What are the similarities between the evolutionary and cultural approaches to emotion?
What are the differences between the evolutionary and cultural approaches to emotion?
- -Both assume emotions contribute solutions to basic problems of social living
- -Both assume emotions help humans form attachments, take care of offspring, fold into hierarchies, and maintain long-term friendships
- -Once an emotion-eliciting appraisal occurs, the corresponding emotional experience and nervous system changes are pretty sure to follow no matter what culture you grew up in
- -The frequency of various appraisals can differ substantially from culture to culture, so that a given emotion may be experienced quite a lot in one culture but not so much in another
- -Different cultures can have their own rules about how people should act when they experience an emotion, depending on the exact situation
- DifferencesWhat is an emotion?
- -Evolutionary Approach: Biological Processes
- -Cultural Approach: Language, beliefs, roles
- Are Emotions universal?
- -Evolutionary Approach: Yes
- -Cultural Approach: Possibly not
- What are the origins of emotions?
- -Evolutionary Approach: Environment of evolutionary adaptedness
- -Cultural Approach: Practices, institutions, values
- Individual Functions
- -Evolutionary Approach: Action readiness
- -Cultural Approach: Reify intensions and values
- Dyadic functions:
- -Evolutionary Approach: Social coordination
- -Cultural Approach: Reify roles, identities, and ideologies
Facial expression in coordinating social interaction - know the informative, evocative, and incentive functions.
: not only do emotional displays provide reliable information about the sender's current emotions, they also signal the sender's relationship with the target.
Triggers specific responses in perceivers
- Incentive Function: Inviting desired social behavior
- ex: warm touch to children as reward
- Anterior (Rosatral) / Posterior (Caudal)
- Dorsal (Superior) / Ventral (Inferior)