PSY 336 Final Pt 2

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PSY 336 Final Pt 2
2013-12-18 02:39:48

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  1. What are the two nervous systems of the Autonomic Nervous System?
    • - Sympathetic
    • - Parasympathetic
  2. What are the general functions of the Sympathetic Nervous System?

    What are the general functions of the Parasympathetic Nervous System?
    • Sympathetic Nervous System
    • - Involves over a dozen different neural pathways originating at several sites on the spinal cord
    • - Increases heart rate, blood pressure, and cardiac output
    • - Vasoconstriction in most veins and arteries
    • - Shuts down digestive processes
    • - Increases many processes that provide energy for the body
    • - Reduces activity of natural killer cells, which are involved in immune responses
    • Helps us prepare the body for the fight or flight response

    • Parasympathetic Nervous System
    • - Vagus nerve (top) and Sacral Region (bottom)
    • - Decrease heart rate and blood pressure
    • - dilates certain arteries to facilitate blood flow
    • - Increases digestive processes --> moving digested  through gastrointestinal tract
    • - Constricts pupils and bronchioles
    • - Stimulates the secretion of various fluids throughout the body (digestive glands, salivation, tears)
  3. Is there evidence for emotion-specific autonomic activity?

    Based on their works and Theories, categorize the following researchers as "yes" or "no"

    -William James
    -Walter Cannon 
    -Ekman & Friesen
    -Schachter & Singer
    • William James: 
    • - Yes

    • Walter Cannon:
    • - No

    • Ekman & Friesen:
    • - Yes

    • Schachter & Singer:
    • - No
  4. Damasio's Somatic Marker Hypothesis

    -What is it and how does it relate to Phineas Gage?
    • Damasio's Somatic Marker Hypothesis: 
    • - When we make decisions, rather than examining every option, some possibilities are emotionally blocked off and some are emotionally attractive
    • - The Guidance system is the body itself: emotional events are experienced as bodily reactions, a.k.a. somatic markers
    • - When we damage the ventromedial frontal cortex, we no longer have access to somatic markers

    • Phineas Gage 
    • - Many patients with this kind of brain damage (ventromedial frontal cortex) have their emotions "blunted" like Gage
    • - Show inappropriate manners and a lack of concern for the well-being of others
    • - Suffer from "pseudo-psychopathy" or "acquired sociopathy"
  5. What are the two neuroimaging techniques discussed in class?
    • PET
    • fMRI
  6. In general, what are PET and fMRI's measuring? 
    (hint: they are not actually measuring the brain's electrical activity)

    What are the two main limitations to these techniques?
    They are both measuring metabolic activity

    • 2 Limitations
    • - Correlation does not equal causation
    • - Both have poor temporal resolution
  7. Limbic System - What are the structures included in the "classic limbic lobe"? (i.e., Papez circuit)
    • Papez Circuit
    • Cingulate Gyrus
    • Hypothalamus
    • Anterior Thalamus
    • Hippocampus
    • Limbic System also includes
    • Amygdala
    • Orbitofrontal cortex
    • Parts of Basal Ganglia
  8. Orbitofrontal Cortex
    - Where is it located?
    - How does damage to this are hinder social decision making?
    • Responses seem overly dependent on perceptual information, ignoring social cues
    • At times, have difficulty inhibiting inappropriate social responses, such as aggressive impulses
  9. Where is the amygdala located?
    • Medial temporal Lobe
  10. Name the functions of the Amygdala
    • Central emotional computer for the brain
    • Responsible for assigning emotional significance to events
    • Important for normal responses to expressions
    • Increase the vigilance or readiness of cortical response systems when emotional stimuli are present
  11. Implicit emotional learning
    • Amygdala Dependent
    • Similar to classical conditioning
    • Fear conditioning
    • Unconditioned stimulus
    • ex: man survives train wreck, goes to bar, recognizes man but doesn't remember name, gets anxious --> Person (NS) acquires aversive properties reminding him of train wreck
  12. Explicit Emotional Learning
    • Amygdala interacts with hippocampal memory system in 2 ways
    • 1) Necessary for normal indirect emotional responses to stimuli whose emotional properties are learned explicitly
    • 2) Can act to enhance the strength of explicit or declarative memories for emotional events by modulating the storage of these memories
  13. Oxytocin:
    When is the chemical released?
    What are the parameters for it's effects?
    • Promotes bonding behavior
    • Invovled in lactation, maternal bonding, and sexual interaction
    • Promotes bonding towards person's in-group
  14. Primary Appraisal
    • Automatic emotional reactions to events and objects in the environment, which motivate rapid approach or avoidance response.
    • Invovles amygdala
  15. Secondary Appraisal
    Provide more deliberate, conscious, complex assessments in terms of such matters as what caused the event and what to do about it
  16. Hemispheric Specialization
    - Which is associated with primary versus secondary appraisal?
    • Right Hemisphere:
    • Responds more readily to emotional content
    • Unconcious; automatic
    • Primary appraisal
    • Left Hemisphere:
    • More ready to interpret experience in terms of language
    • Conscious; thought-like; gives rise to specific emotions
    • Secondary Appraisal
  17. Primary Appraisal vs Secondary Appraisal
    • Primary appraisal is not just positive or negative; each mode is a state of readiness
    • Secondary appraisal --> core relational theme (the essential meaning for each emotion)
  18. Infant's Reactions: Newborns
    • Crying
    • Disgust to sour tastes
  19. Infant's Emotions: 1st month
    "Social Smiles"
  20. Harlow Monkey Experiment: 

    Name the general methodology and results
    • 2 mothers - wire with bottle and cloth with nothing
    • Infant monkeys isolated for 6 months

    • 18-19 hours with cloth mother
    • 2 hours with wire mother
  21. Development of Empathy and Compassion
    • Empathy is essential to prosocial behavior, kindness, caring, and justice
    • With increasing cognitive capacity, our ability to understand the world becomes more complex, and allows for more appropriate responses to the other person
    • Historically, compassion (i.e., empathy or sympathy) has been thought of as the very foundation of society
  22. Chronological development behavioral versus mentalistic ideas of emotion
    • 2-3 years old have mentalistic conceptions of emotions
    • 3-4 years old give reasons for experiencing emotions in which they make references to the goal stages (or desires) of other people
    • 4 years old, good at explaining people's actions in terms of these people's own mental states, including desires and emotions

    This development is important for cooperative partnership
  23. 3 kinds of social motivation
    • Attachment: Primary function is protection and care of the immature infant
    • Affiliation: Affection; "warmth"; Draws individuals together even when they are not genetically related
    • Assertion: "Power"; Motivation of competition and conflict (to rise in social hierarchy)
  24. Function of attachment
    • To be protective
    • Maternal sensitivity
    • Affiliation, warmth, and affection
  25. 4 negative behaviors most damaging to relationships
    • - Criticism
    • - Defensiveness
    • - Stonewalling (avoid talking)
    • - Contempt for partner (resentment)

    • - Done by Gottman & Levenson 
    • - 93% accuracy whowould stay married or divorce