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What are the two nervous systems of the Autonomic Nervous System?
- - Sympathetic
- - Parasympathetic
What are the general functions of the Sympathetic Nervous System?
What are the general functions of the Parasympathetic Nervous System?
- Sympathetic Nervous System- Involves over a dozen different neural pathways originating at several sites on the spinal cord
- - Increases heart rate, blood pressure, and cardiac output
- - Vasoconstriction in most veins and arteries
- - Shuts down digestive processes
- - Increases many processes that provide energy for the body
- - Reduces activity of natural killer cells, which are involved in immune responses
- Helps us prepare the body for the fight or flight response
- Parasympathetic Nervous System- Vagus nerve (top) and Sacral Region (bottom)
- - Decrease heart rate and blood pressure
- - dilates certain arteries to facilitate blood flow
- - Increases digestive processes --> moving digested through gastrointestinal tract
- - Constricts pupils and bronchioles
- - Stimulates the secretion of various fluids throughout the body (digestive glands, salivation, tears)
Is there evidence for emotion-specific autonomic activity?
Based on their works and Theories, categorize the following researchers as "yes" or "no"
-Ekman & Friesen
-Schachter & Singer
Damasio's Somatic Marker Hypothesis
-What is it and how does it relate to Phineas Gage?
- Damasio's Somatic Marker Hypothesis:
- - When we make decisions, rather than examining every option, some possibilities are emotionally blocked off and some are emotionally attractive
- - The Guidance system is the body itself: emotional events are experienced as bodily reactions, a.k.a. somatic markers
- - When we damage the ventromedial frontal cortex, we no longer have access to somatic markers
- Phineas Gage
- - Many patients with this kind of brain damage (ventromedial frontal cortex) have their emotions "blunted" like Gage
- - Show inappropriate manners and a lack of concern for the well-being of others
- - Suffer from "pseudo-psychopathy" or "acquired sociopathy"
What are the two neuroimaging techniques discussed in class?
In general, what are PET and fMRI's measuring?
(hint: they are not actually measuring the brain's electrical activity)
What are the two main limitations to these techniques?
They are both measuring metabolic activity
- - Correlation does not equal causation
- - Both have poor temporal resolution
Limbic System - What are the structures included in the "classic limbic lobe"? (i.e., Papez circuit)
- Papez Circuit
- Cingulate Gyrus
- Anterior Thalamus
- Limbic System also includes
- Orbitofrontal cortex
- Parts of Basal Ganglia
- Where is it located?
- How does damage to this are hinder social decision making?
- Responses seem overly dependent on perceptual information, ignoring social cues
- At times, have difficulty inhibiting inappropriate social responses, such as aggressive impulses
Where is the amygdala located?
- Medial temporal Lobe
Name the functions of the Amygdala
- Central emotional computer for the brain
- Responsible for assigning emotional significance to events
- Important for normal responses to expressions
- Increase the vigilance or readiness of cortical response systems when emotional stimuli are present
Implicit emotional learning
- Amygdala DependentSimilar to classical conditioning
- Fear conditioning
- Unconditioned stimulus
- ex: man survives train wreck, goes to bar, recognizes man but doesn't remember name, gets anxious --> Person (NS) acquires aversive properties reminding him of train wreck
Explicit Emotional Learning
- Amygdala interacts with hippocampal memory system in 2 ways
- 1) Necessary for normal indirect emotional responses to stimuli whose emotional properties are learned explicitly
- 2) Can act to enhance the strength of explicit or declarative memories for emotional events by modulating the storage of these memories
When is the chemical released?
What are the parameters for it's effects?
- Promotes bonding behavior
- Invovled in lactation, maternal bonding, and sexual interaction
- Promotes bonding towards person's in-group
- Automatic emotional reactions to events and objects in the environment, which motivate rapid approach or avoidance response.
- Invovles amygdala
Provide more deliberate, conscious, complex assessments in terms of such matters as what caused the event and what to do about it
- Which is associated with primary versus secondary appraisal?
- Right Hemisphere:
- Responds more readily to emotional content
- Unconcious; automatic
- Primary appraisal
- Left Hemisphere:
- More ready to interpret experience in terms of language
- Conscious; thought-like; gives rise to specific emotions
- Secondary Appraisal
Primary Appraisal vs Secondary Appraisal
- Primary appraisal is not just positive or negative; each mode is a state of readiness
- Secondary appraisal --> core relational theme (the essential meaning for each emotion)
Infant's Reactions: Newborns
- Disgust to sour tastes
Infant's Emotions: 1st month
Harlow Monkey Experiment:
Name the general methodology and results
- 2 mothers - wire with bottle and cloth with nothing
- Infant monkeys isolated for 6 months
- 18-19 hours with cloth mother
- 2 hours with wire mother
Development of Empathy and Compassion
- Empathy is essential to prosocial behavior, kindness, caring, and justice
- With increasing cognitive capacity, our ability to understand the world becomes more complex, and allows for more appropriate responses to the other person
- Historically, compassion (i.e., empathy or sympathy) has been thought of as the very foundation of society
Chronological development behavioral versus mentalistic ideas of emotion
- 2-3 years old have mentalistic conceptions of emotions
- 3-4 years old give reasons for experiencing emotions in which they make references to the goal stages (or desires) of other people4 years old, good at explaining people's actions in terms of these people's own mental states, including desires and emotions
This development is important for cooperative partnership
3 kinds of social motivation
- Attachment: Primary function is protection and care of the immature infant
- Affiliation: Affection; "warmth"; Draws individuals together even when they are not genetically related
- Assertion: "Power"; Motivation of competition and conflict (to rise in social hierarchy)
Function of attachment
- To be protective
- Maternal sensitivity
- Affiliation, warmth, and affection
4 negative behaviors most damaging to relationships
- - Criticism
- - Defensiveness
- - Stonewalling (avoid talking)
- - Contempt for partner (resentment)
- - Done by Gottman & Levenson
- - 93% accuracy whowould stay married or divorce