PSY 336 Final Pt 3

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  1. 3 perspectives on the effects of emotions on cognition.

    What are they?
    • - Emotion Congruence
    • - Feelings as Information
    • - Processing Style
  2. 3 perspectives on the effect of emotions on cognition.

    Processing Style
    • Different emotions promote different processing styles
    • Happy and angry moods facilitate use of already existing knowledge structures, such as heuristics and stereotypes
    • Sad moo facilitates more analytical thought and careful attention to situational details
  3. 3 perspectives on the effect of emotions on cognition.

    Feelings as Information
    • Assumes that emotions themselves are informative when we make judgements
    • 2 Assumptions
    • -Emotions provide us with a rapid signal triggered by something in our environment 
    • -Many of the judgments that we make are often too complex to review all the relevant information
  4. 3 perspectives on the effect of emotions on cognition.

    Emotion Congruence
    • Moods and emotions are associative networks
    • We should be able to learn material that is congruent with our current emotion
  5. Effects of moods/emotions on evaluative judgements
    • When in a positive emotional state, we evaluate objects and events in a more positive light;
    • same for when we're in a negative emotional state
  6. Effects of moods/emotions on future judgments
    • Negative moods lead people to view the future pessimistically;
    • Positive moods lead people to look at the future more optimistically
  7. Effects of moods/emotions on casual judgments
    • General attributional bias produced by negative and positive moods
    • anger leads people to blame others for various actions and to be acutely sensitive to unfair actions
    • Sadness leads people to positive events to impersonal, situational causes
  8. The Strange Situation test
    Infants emotional reactions to belief separation from, and reunions with, their caregivers
  9. 3 Attachment styles and fourth one added later
    • Securely Attached: 
    • - Distressed when they leave

    • Ambivalently Attached: 
    • - Want to be near them upon return but will not be comforted

    • Avoidantly Attached:
    • - Make no effort to interact

    • Disoriented/Disorganized Style:
    • - Infants respond with disorientation and contradictory behaviors
  10. Classifying childhood disorders:
    How are they diagnosed?
    • DSMV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders)
    • No clear cut definition of "emotional disorder" vs "no emotional disorder"
    • Diagnoses are descriptions or patterns of behavior
    • Assessment involved
    • - Checklist of symptoms or behavior patterns
    • - Continuous measurements
    • - Clusters of behaviors are identified
  11. Middle childhood: Externalizing vs Internalizing Disorders

    What are the two predominant emotional disorders in each of these categories?

    What types of emotions are involved? (i.e. "disordered")?

    Roughly what age range are the two most common externalizing disorders typically seen?
    Externalizing Disorders: hostility, aggression, stealing, lying, etc.

    • Internalizing Disorders: Anxiety, depression. 
  12. 3 Perspectives on "what" is disordered in emotional disorders
    • 1. Predominance of one emotion --> dominated other possible experiences
    • 2. Inappropriate Emotional Responses: ex) child laughing when someone else is distressed or crying though nothing hapened
    • 3. Dysregulation --> Emotions are not properly regulated: Inappropriate to he social context
  13. Psychiatric epidemiology
    Study of how many people show a particular disorder in the population, statistically relating the disorder to factors in people's lives
  14. Prevalence
    Proportion of a population suffering from some disorder over a specified amount of time
  15. Incidence
    Number of new onsets of a particular disorder in a given time
  16. Trends of anxiety disorders from childhood to adolescence
    • Generally increased with age
    • Separation anxiety disorder more common in early childhood
    • Overanxious disorder more common in adolescence
    • 17% of preadolescence with anxiety disorder also depressed
    • 69% adolescents with anxiety disorder also depressed
  17. Trends of depressive disorders from childhood to adolescence.

    Gender difference?
    • Girls are more likely than boys to show anxiety disorders
    • In childhood, both boys and girls are equally likely to suffer from depression
    • By late adolescence, females twice as likely
  18. Stress-Diathesis Model
    • Stress -> something that occurs in the environment
    • Diathesis --> predisposition to a disorder - genetic
    • Neither stress nor vulnerability on their own cause a disorder - the specific combination does
  19. Bi-Directional Effect
    Mutually coercive patterns --> children who are more difficult make their parents more angry
  20. Protective Factors
    Factors that counteract risks and make things better
  21. Effects of Genes (Diathesis)
    • Female vs. Male
    • -Genetic component for depressive and anxiety symptoms in children has generally been found to be 20-40%
    • Diathesis not all genetic --> mothers' drinking, smoking or malnourished during pregnancy
  22. 3 different kinds of depressive disorders
    • Major depressive disorder (4+ symptoms)
    • Minor depressive disorder (2-4 symptoms)
    • Bi-polar disorder (depression followed by mania)
  23. 5 different types of anxiety disorders
    • Panic Attacks: Sudden terror; bodily symptoms such as racing heart, dizziness, and shortness of breath
    • Phobias: Urge to avoid places, things or activities
    • Generalized Anxieties: 6 months disabling and persistent anxiety/worry
    • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder: Performing compulsive acts temporarily diminish anxiety
    • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: Anxiety, disturbed sleep,flashbacks of an event, and avoidance of reminders of event
  24. What type of treatment is available for PTSD sufferers?

    Which is the most common?

    Which is the most effective?
    • Most common: Prescribed Drugs
    • Most effective: Exposure Therapy (type of cognitive behavioral therapy)
  25. What kinds of events cause depression versus anxiety disorder?
    • Anxiety Disorder: Events that are future directed-involving danger
    • Depression: Events that were losses
    • Both: Events involving both loss and danger
  26. Cognitive mechanisms for sustaining depression versus anxiety
    • Depression --> Memory
    • Anxiety --> Attention
  27. Primary, Secondary and Instrumental Emotions
    • Primary Emotions: emotions not experienced fully enough
    • Secondary Emotions: Emerge to cover up certain primary motions that were unacceptable
    • Instrumental Emotions: Emotions learn to express to get their way
  28. Which form of psychotherapy is the most effective?
    • Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy
    • More effective with antidepressant medicine
    • Lower rate of relapse
  29. Which form of therapy tends to be the treatment of choice on the clinicians' end?
    Drugs because they are cheap and are not labor intensive 
  30. What is the real benefit of social sharing?
    • Does not diminish intensity of emotion
    • Benefit comes from making sense of emotions
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PSY 336 Final Pt 3
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