Pharmacology:Chapter 2

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  1. Aerosols
    active pharmaceutical agents in a pressurized container
  2. capsules
    powdered drugs within a gelatin container. liguids may be placed in soft gelatin capsules (e.g., cod liver oil capsules, diphenhydramine hydrochloride [Benadryl] capsules).
  3. Elixirs
    solutions containing alcohol, sugar, and water. elixirs may or may not be aromatic and may or may not have active medicinals. most frequently, they are used as flavoring agents or solvents (e.g, terpin hydrate elixir, phenobarbital elixir).
  4. Emulsions
    suspensions of fat globules in water (or water globules in fat) with an emulsifying agent (e.g, Haley's M-O, Petrogalar). (Homogenized milk is also an emulsion)
  5. Fluid extracts
    alcoholic liquid extracts of a drug made by percolation so that 1 mL of the fluid extract contains 1 gm of the drug. Only vegetable-based drugs are used (e.g, glycyrrhiza fluid extract).
  6. Gels
    Aqueous suspensions of insoluble drugs in hydrated form. Aluminum hydroxide gel, USPNF, is an example.
  7. liniments
    mixtures of drugs with oil, soap, water, or alcohol, intended for extrernal application with rubbing (e.g, camphor liniment, chloroform liniment).
  8. long-acting or sustained-release dosage forms
    active pharmaceutical agents that are either layered in tablet form for release over several hours or placed in pellets within a capsule. the pellets are of varying size and disintegrate over 8 to 24 hours. sustained-release dosage forms must not be broken or crushed because their efficacy depends on the release of the various layers over time.
  9. lotions
    aqueous preparations containing suspended materials intended for soothing, using local application. most are patted on rather than rubbed (e.g., calamine [Caladryl] lotion).
  10. oinments
    mixtures of drugs with a fatty base for external application, usually by rubbing (e.g., zinc oxide ointment, ben-gay ointment.)
  11. pills
    single-dose units made by mixing a powdered drug with a liquid such as syrup and rolling it into a round or oval shape. pills are largely replaced by other dosage forms today.
  12. powders
    single-dose quantities of a drug or mixture of drugs in powdered form wrapped separately in powder papers (e.g., Seidlitz powder).
  13. Solutions
    Aqueous liquid preparations containing one or more substances completely dissolved. Every solution has two parts: the solute (the dissolved substance) and the solvent (the substance, usually the liquid, in which the solute is dissolved).
  14. Spirits
    alcoholic solutions of volatile substances. these are also known as essences (e.g., essence of peppermint, camphor spirit).
  15. suppositories
    mixtures of drugs with some firm base such as cocoa butter, which can be molded into  shape for insertion into a body orifice. rectal, vaginal, and urethral suppositories are the most common types (e.g., nitrofurazone [Furacin] vaginal suppositories, magnesium hydroxide[Dulcolax] suppositories), but nasal or ear (otic) suppositories may be made.
  16. syrups
    aqueous solutions of a sugar. these may or may not have medicinal substances added (e.g, simple syrup, ipecac syrup).
  17. tablets
    single dose units made by compressing powdered drugs in a suitable mold (e.g., aspirin tablets). Special forms of tablets include sublingual tablets (to be held under the tongue until dissolved) and enteric-coated tablets (with a coating that prevents their absorption until they reach the intestinal tract).
  18. tinctures
    alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions prepared from drugs (e.g., iodine tincture, digitalis tincture).
  19. troches or lozenges
    flat, round, or rectangular preparations that are held in the mouth until dissolved.
  20. waters
    saturated solutions of volatile oils (e.g.,peppermint water, camphor water).
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Pharmacology:Chapter 2
2013-12-19 13:58:22

pharmaceutical preparations
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