Chemistry Final

Card Set Information

Chemistry Final
2013-12-17 23:52:07
Final Exam

Exams 1-6 People and Terms
Show Answers:

  1. Crystalline Solid
    A type of solid state of matter that. They are geometric in shape. For example salt or diamonds
  2. Amorphous Solids
    Another type of solid state of matter. They do NOT have a geometric shape. For example glass or rubber.
  3. Physical Properties
    describe an objects mass, weight, color, or, odor
  4. Chemical Properties
    describe a substances reactivity
  5. Law of conservation of energy
    The energy of an object at rest is equal to the energy of the object in motion.
  6. Kinetic Energy
    The energy of an object at work or in motion
  7. Potential Energy
    The energy of an object at rest
  8. Democritus/Leucippus
    Both were early greek philosphers who discovered that matter is made up of tiny indestructible particles called atoms
  9. Demitri Mendeleev
    The founder of the periodic table. He organized elements on the periodic table by their relative mass and similar properties.
  10. John Dalton
    In 1808 Dalton created the his Theory of atoms. He expanded Democritus and Leucippus ideas of matter. His theory still holds true today
  11. Ernest Rutherford
    was J.J. Thompsons successor. He created the gold foil experiment which proved Thompson's plum pudding model invalid. He proved that an atoms mass comes mostly from the nucleus.
  12. Marie and Perrie Currie
    Both were early scientist who created elements. Marie won a nobel prize for her work and had an element named after her.
  13. Amadeo Avagardo
    The creator of the number 6.022 x 1023. We can use that number to find the number of molecules, atoms, and subparticles within a substance.
  14. Atomic number
    The number of the chemical symbol. It can tell us the number of protons an element has.
  15. Atomic mass
    The number below the chemical symbol. When the atomic number is subtracted from the atomic mass the number of nuetrons can be found.
  16. isotope
    An element that is radioactive in nature. This is because the element has more or less nuetrons than protons
  17. Photon
    A unit of energy
  18. wavelength
    The distance between adjacent crests
  19. electromagnetic spectrum
    Shows the energy from long wavelengths with low energy to short wavelengths with high energy. For example from radio waves to gamma rays.
  20. frequency
    The distance a wavelength travels in one second
  21. excitation of an electron
    This is when an electron in an atom gains energy and goes up an energy level.
  22. relaxation of an electron
    When an electron in an atom loses energy and goes down an energy level.
  23. Pauli Exclusion Principle
    Orbitals may hold no more than two electrons with opposing spins
  24. ionization energy
    When energy between ions is strong.
  25. Niels Bohr
    One of the creators of the Bohr's model and quantum mechanical model. He stated "God does not role dice with the universe."
  26. Erwin Schrodinger
    Another partner in creating the quantum mechanical model. He stated "Their can be a yes and no answer, and they won't contradict each other".
  27. G. N. Lewis
    The creator of Lewis Theory. He used dot structures or Lewis structure to represent molecules and compounds.
  28. pure covalent bond
    When atoms share electrons equally between each other
  29. polar covalent bond
    When atoms share electrons. Just not equally
  30. Ionic Bond
    When electrons are transferred.
  31. Pressure
    The force exterted on the Earth by gravity
  32. Charles Law
    The law that deals with volume and temperature. It states that volume and temperature are directly porportional
  33. Avogardo's Law
    equal volumes of gas, temperature, and pressure contain the same number of moles
  34. Surface tension
    The skin created on liquids. When atoms interact with their neighbors creating a net inward force
  35. Viscosity
    The resistance for liquid to flow
  36. Evaporation
    when a substance changes from its liquid state to gaseous state
  37. Condensation
    When a substance changes from its gaseous state to its liquid state
  38. Sublimiation
    When a substance changes directly from its solid state to gaseous state
  39. Solvent
    The liquid a solute is dissolved in to form a solution
  40. Solution
    The combination of the solvent and the dissolved solute
  41. Henry's Law
    The volume of a gas is directly porportional to the number of moles. The temperature is inversely porportional to the pressue
  42. molality
    A measure of the concentration of the solute within a solution
  43. Dynamic Chemical Equilibrium
    The rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction
  44. Le Chateliers Principle
    When a chemical system at equilibrium is disturbed the system shifts in the direction to minimize the disturbance.
  45. effect of a catalyst
    Provide an alternate route with a lower activation energy
  46. energy of activation
    The amount of energy required by certain substances to have a reaction
  47. biological catalyst
  48. Alkanes
    Hydrocarbons bonded only by single bonds. They are also known as saturated hydrocarbons
  49. Alkenes
    hydrocarbons that contain one single bond and at least one double bond between carbon atoms. They are unsaturated hydrocarbons
  50. Alkynes
    are hydrocarbons that contain at least one triple bond between carbon atoms.