Card Set Information

2013-12-18 00:53:17

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  1. Active data warehousing (ADW)
    See real-time data warehousing
  2. Artificial intelligence (AI)
    The subfield of computer science concerned with symbolic reasoning and problem solving
  3. Asynchronous
    Occurring at different times
  4. Backward chaining
    A search techniques (based on if-then rules) used in production systems that begins with the action clause of a rule and works backward through a chain of rules in an attempt to find a verifiable set of condition clauses
  5. Best practices
    In an organization, the best methods for solving problems. These are often stored in the knowledge repository of a knowledge management system
  6. Balanced scorecard (BSC)
    A performance measurement and management technology that helps translate an organization's financial, customer, internal process, and learning and growth objectives and targets into a set of actionable initiatives.
  7. Blackboard
    An area of working memory set aside for the description of a current problem and for recording intermediate results in an expert system
  8. Business performance management (BPM)
    An advanced performance management and analysis approach that embraces planning and strategy
  9. Certainty factors (CF)
    A popular technique for representing uncertainty in expert systems where the belief in an event (or a fact or a hypothesis) is expressed using the expert's unique assessment
  10. Chief knowledge officer (CKO)
    The person in charge of a knowledge management effort in an organization
  11. Community of practice (COP)
    A group of people in an organization with a common professional interest, often self-organized, for managing knowledge in a knowledge management system
  12. Consultation environment
    The part of an expert system that a non-expert uses to obtain expert knowledge and advice. It includes the workplace, inference engine, explanation facility, recommended action, and user interface.
  13. Content management system (CMS)
    An electronic document management system that produces dynamic versions of document and automatically maintains the current set for use at the enterprise levels
  14. Critical success factor (CSF)
    Key factors that delineate the things that an organization must excel at to be successful in its market space
  15. Collaboration hub
    The central point of control for an e-market. A single collaboration hub (c-hub), representing one e-market owner, can host multiple collaboration spaces (c-spaces) in which trading partners use c-enablers to exchange data with the c-hub
  16. Collaborative planning, forecasting, and replenishment (CPFR)
    A project in which suppliers and retailers collaborate in their planning and demand forecasting to optimize the flow of materials along the supply chain
  17. Corporate (enterprise) portal
    A gateway for entering a corporate Web site. A corporate portal enables communication, collaboration, and access to company information
  18. Data integration
    Integration that comprises three major processes: data access, data federation, and change capture. When these three processes are correctly implemented, data can be accesses and made accessible to an array of ETL, analysis tools, and data warehousing environments.
  19. Data mart
    A departmental data warehouse that stores only relevant data
  20. Data warehouse (DW)
    A physical repository where relational data are specially organized to provide enterprise-wide, cleansed data in a standardized format
  21. Data warehouse administrator (DWA)
    A person responsible for the administration and management of a data warehouse
  22. Development environment
    The part of an expert system that a builder uses. It includes the knowledge base and the inference engine, and it involves knowledge acquisition and improvement of reasoning capability. The knowledge engineer and the expert are considered part of the enviroment.
  23. Dependent data mart
    A subset that is created directly from a data warehouse
  24. Dimension table
    A table that addresses how data will be analyzed
  25. Dimensional modeling
    A retrieval-based system that supports high-volume query access
  26. Drill down
    The investigation of information in detail (e.g. finding not only total sales but also sales by region, by product, or by salesperson). Finding the detailed sources
  27. Dashboard
    A visual presentation of critical data for executives to view. It allows executives to see hot spots in seconds and explore the situation
  28. Diagnostic control system
    A cybernetic system that has inputs, a process for transforming the inputs into outputs, a standard or benchmark against which to compare the outputs, and a feedback channel to allow information on variances between the outputs and the standard to be communicated and acted on
  29. DMAIC
    A closed-loop business management model that includes these steps: defining, measuring, analyzing, improving and controlling a process
  30. Data conferencing
    Virtual meeting in which geographically dispersed groups work on document together and exchange computer files during videoconferences
  31. Decision room
    An arrangement for a group support system in which PCs are available to some or all participants. The objective is to enhance groupwork
  32. Delphi method
    A qualitative forecasting methodology that uses anonymous questionnaires. It is effective for technological forecasting and for forecasting involving sensitive issues
  33. Enterprise application integration (EAI)
    A technology that provides a vehicle for pushing data from source systems into a data warehouse
  34. Enterprise data warehouse (EDW)
    An organizational-level data warehouse developed for analytical purposes
  35. Enterprise information integration (EII)
    An evolving tool space that promises real-time data integration from a variety of sources, such as relational databases, Web services, and multidimensional databases.
  36. Extraction, transformation, and load (ETL)
    A data warehousing process that consists of extraction (i.e. reading data from a database), transformation (i.e. converting the extracted data from its previous form into the form in which it needs to be so that it can be placed into a data warehouse or simply another database), and load (i.e. putting the data into the warehouse)
  37. Electronic brainstorming
    A computer-supported methodology of idea generation by association. This group process uses analogy and synergy
  38. Electronic document management (EDM)
    A method for processing documents electronically, including capture, storage, retrieval, manipulation, and presentation
  39. Electronic meeting system (EMS)
    An information technology-based environment that supports group meeting (groupware), which may be distributed geographically and temporally
  40. Enterprise-wide collaboration system
    A group support system that supports an entire enterprise
  41. Enterprise knowledge portal (EKP)
    An electronic doorwary into a knowledge management system
  42. Expert location system
    An interactive computerized system that helps employees find and connect with colleagues who have expertise required for specific problems - whether they are across the county or across the room- in order to solve specific, critical business problems in seconds
  43. Expert system (ES)
    A computer system that applies reasoning methodologies to knowledge in a specific domain to render advice or recommendations, much like a human expert. An ES is a computer system that achieves a high level of performance in task that, for human beings, require years of special education and training
  44. Expert system (ES) shell
    A computer program that facilitates relatively easy implementation of a specific expert system. Analogous to a DSS generator
  45. Expertise
    The set of capabilities that underlines the performance of human experts, including extensive domain knowledge, heuristic rules that simplify and improve approaches to problem solving , metaknowledge and metacognition, and compiled forms of behavior that afford great economy in a skilled performance
  46. Explanation subsystem
    The component of an expert system that can explain the system's reasoning and justify its conclusions
  47. Explicit knowledge
    Knowledge that deals with objective, rational, and technical material (e.g. data, policies, procedures, software, documents). Also known as leaky knowledge
  48. Forward chaining
    A data-driven search in a rule-based system
  49. Fuzzy logic
    A logically consistent way of reasoning that can cope with uncertain or partial information. Fuzzy logic is characteristic of having objects strictly in or out of the set.
  50. Grain
    A definition of the high-level of detail that is supported in a data warehouse
  51. Group decision support system (GDSS)
    An interactive computer-based system that facilitates the solution of semi-structured and unstructured problems by a group of decision makers
  52. Group support system (GSS)
    Information systems, specifically DSS, that supports the collaborative work of groups
  53. Groupthink
    In a meeting, continual reinforcement of an idea by group members
  54. Groupware
    Computerized technologies and methods that aim to support the work of people working in groups
  55. Groupwork
    Any work being performed by more than one person
  56. Heuristics
    Informal, judgmental knowledge of an application area that constitutes the rules of good judgment in the field. Heuristics also encompasses the knowledge of how to solve problems efficiently and effectively, how to plan steps in solving a complex problem, how to improve performance, and so forth
  57. Independent data mart
    A small data warehouse designed for a strategic business unit or a department
  58. Idea generation
    The process by which people generate ideas, usually supported by software (e.g. developing alternatives solutions to a problem). Also known as brainstorming.
  59. Inference engine
    The part of an expert system that actually performs the reasoning function
  60. Inferences rules
    In expert systems, a collection of if-then rules that govern the processing of knowledge rules acting as a critical part of the inferencing mechanism
  61. Internet telephony
    • Same as voice over IP (VoIP)
    • Communication systems that transmit voice calls over Internet Protocol (IP)-based networks.
  62. Intelligent agent (IA)
    An expert or knowledge-based system embedded in computer-based information systems (or their components) to make them smarter
  63. Intelligent computer-aided instruction (ICAI)
    The use of AI techniques for training or teaching with a computer.
  64. Intelligent tutoring system (ITS)
    Self-tutoring systems that can guide learners in how best to proceed with the learning process
  65. Key performance indicator (KPI)
    Measure of performance against a strategic objective and goal
  66. Knowledge
    Understanding, awareness, or familiarity acquired through education or experience; anything that has been learned, perceived, discovered, inferred, or understood; the ability to use information. In a knowledge management system, knowledge is information in action
  67. Knowledge acquisition
    The extraction and formulation of knowledge derived from various sources, especially from experts.
  68. Knowledge base
    A collection of facts, rules, and procedures organized into schemas. A knowledge base is the assembly of all the information and knowledge about a specific field of interest
  69. Knowledge-based economy
    The modern, global economy, which is driven by what people and organizations know rather than only by capital and labor. An economy based on intellectual assets
  70. Knowledge-based system (KBS)
    Typically, a rule-based system for providing expertise. A KBS is identical to an expert system, except that the source of expertise may include documented knowledge
  71. Knowledge-refining system
    A system that is capable of analyzing its own performance, learning , and improving itself for future consultations
  72. Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD)
    A machine-learning process that performs rule induction or a related procedure to establish knowledge from larger databases
  73. Knowledge engineer
    An artificial intelligence specialist responsible for the technical side of developing an expert system. The knowledge engineer works closely with the domain expert to capture the expert's knowledge in a knowledge base
  74. Knowledge engineering
    The engineering discipline in which knowledge is integrated into computer systems to solve complex problems that normally require a high level of human expertise
  75. Knowledge management (KM)
    The active management of the expertise in an organization. It involves collecting, categorizing, and disseminating knowledge
  76. Knowledge management system (KMS)
    A system that facilitates knowledge management by ensuring knowledge flow from the person(s) who knows to the person(s) who needs to know throughout the organization; knowledge evolves and grows during the process
  77. Knowledge repository
    The actual storage location of knowledge in a knowledge management system. A knowledge repository is similar in nature to a database but is generally text oriented
  78. Knowledge rules
    A collection of if-then rules that represents the deep knowledge about a specific problem
  79. Knowware
    Technology tools that support knowledge management
  80. Leaky knowledge
    • Same as explicit knowledge
    • Knowledge that deals with objective, rational, and technical material (e.g. data, policies, procedures, software, documents).
  81. Learning organization
    An organization that is capable of learning from its past experience, implying the existence of an organizational memory and a means to save, represent, and share it through its personnel
  82. Lean Manufacturing
    Production methodology focused on the elimination of waste or non-value-added features in a process
  83. Metadata
    Data about data. In a data warehouse, metadata describe the contents of a data warehouse and the manner of its use
  84. Model mart
    A small, generally departmental repository of knowledge created by using knowledge-discovery techniques on past decision instances. Model marts are similar to data marts. See model warehouse
  85. Model warehouse
    A large, generally enterprise-wide repository of knowledge created by using knowledge-discovery techniques on past decision instances. Model warehouses are similar to data warehouses. See model mart
  86. Natural language processing (NLP)
    Using a natural language processor to interface with a computer-based system
  87. Neural computing
    An experimental computer design aimed at building intelligent computers that operate in a manner modeled on the functioning of the human brain. See artificial neural network
  88. Nominal group technique (NGT)
    A simple brainstorming process for nonelectronic meetings
  89. Oper mart
    An operational data mart. An oper mart is a small-scale data mart typically used by a single department or functional area in an organization
  90. Operational data store (ODS)
    A type of database often used as an interim area for a data warehouse, especially for customer information files.
  91. Online (electronic) workspace
    Online screens that allow people to share documents, files, project plans, calendars, and so on in the same online place, through not necessarily at the same time.
  92. Organizational culture
    The aggregate attitudes in an organization concerning a certain issue (e.g. technology, computers, DSS)
  93. Organization learning
    The process of capturing knowledge and making it available enterprise-wide
  94. Organizational memory
    That which an organization knows
  95. Operational plan
    A plan that translates an organization's strategic objectives and goals into a set of well-defined tactics and initiatives, resource requirements, and expected results
  96. Performance measurement system
    A system that assists managers in tracking the implementations of business strategy by comparing actual results against strategic goals and objectives
  97. Parallelism
    In a group support system, a process gain in which everyone in a group can work simultaneously (e.g. in brainstorming, voting, ranking)
  98. Practice approach
    An approach toward knowledge management that focuses on building the social environments or communities of practice necessary to facilitate the sharing of tacit understanding
  99. Process approach
    An approach to knowledge management that attempts to codify organizational knowledge through formalized controls, processes, and technologies
  100. Process gain
    In a group support system, improvement s in the effectiveness of the activities of a meeting
  101. Process loss
    In a group support system, degradation in the effectiveness of the activities of a meeting
  102. Production rules
    The most popular form of knowledge representation for expert systems where atomic pieces of knowledge are represented using simple if-then structures
  103. Real-time data warehousing (RDW)
    The process of loading and providing data via a data warehouse as they become available
  104. Robot
    A machine that has the capability of performing manual functions without human intervention
  105. Rule-based expert systems
    A system in which knowledge is represented completely in terms of rules (e.g. a system based on production rules)
  106. Scorecard
    A visual display that is used to chart progress against strategic and tactical goals and targets
  107. Speech (voice) understanding
    An area of artificial intelligence research that attempts to allow computers to recognize words or phases of human speech
  108. Strategic goal
    A quantified objective that has a designated time period
  109. Strategic objective
    A broad statement or general course of action that prescribes targeted directions for an organization
  110. Strategic theme
    A collection of related strategic objectives, used to simplify the construction of a strategic map
  111. Strategic vision
    A picture or mental image of what the organization should look like in the future
  112. Strategy map
    A visual display that delineates the relationships among the key organizational objectives for all four balanced scorecard perspectives
  113. System architecture
    The logical and physical design of a system
  114. Screen sharing
    Software that enables group members, even in different locations, to work on the same document, which is shown on the PC screen of each participant
  115. Synchronous (real-time)
    Occurring at the same time
  116. Tacit knowledge
    Knowledge that is usually in the domain of subjective, cognitive, and experiential learning. It is highly personal and difficult to formalize
  117. Teleconferencing
    The use of electronic communication that allows two or more people at different locations to have a simultaneous conference
  118. Theory of certainty factors
    A theory designed to help incorporate uncertainty into the representation of knowledge (in terms of production rules) for expert systems
  119. Turing test
    A test designed to measure the "intelligence" of a computer
  120. User interface
    The component of a computer system that allows bidirectional communication between the system and its user
  121. Vendor-managed inventory (VMI)
    The practice of retailers making suppliers responsible for determining when to order and how much to order
  122. Video teleconferencing (videoconferencing)
    Virtual meeting in which participants in one location can see participants at other locations on a large screen or a desktop computer
  123. Virtual meeting
    An online meeting whose members are in different locations, possibly even in different countries
  124. Virtual team
    A team whose members are in different places while in a meeting together
  125. Visual recognition
    The addition of some form of computer intelligence and decision making to digitized visual information, received from a machine sensor such as a camera
  126. Voice over IP (VOIP)
    Communication systems that transmit voice calls over Internet Protocol (IP)-based networks. Also known as Internet telephony
  127. Wiki
    A piece of server software available in a Web site that allows users to freely create and edit Web page content, using any Web browser
  128. wikilog
    A web log (blog) that allows people to participate as peers; anyone can add, delete, or change content