Psych Final

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  1. Implicit Memory
    retention independent of conscious recollection (driving)
  2. Einstein's Brain was different how?
    he had a larger corpus callosum, which carries electrical signals from one side of the brain to the other
  3. Iconic Memory
    a photographic memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
  4. Emotional Intelligence
    the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
  5. Operant Conditioning
    a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
  6. Classical Conditioning
    a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
  7. Behavior Modification
    therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
  8. Exposure Therapy
    behavioral therapies that treat anxieties by exposing people to the things they fear
  9. Freud's Anxiety Responses
    • Regression- reverting to a safer time in life
    • Introjection- taking on the values of others
    • Denial- closing one's eyes to reality
    • Sublimation- diverting sexual/aggressive energy into other channels
    • Displacement- shifting impulses to another that seems less threatening
    • Reaction Formation- actively expressing the opposite behavior to remove focus from self
    • Projection- attributing unacceptable traits to others, but not to self
    • Rationalization- justification of certain behaviors
    • Repression- painful thoughts and feelings that a person unconsciously excludes from reality
  10. Projective Tests (intelligence)
    a personality test (Rorschach) that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
  11. Masculine Identity Theory
    boys raised by single fathers have problems with masculine identity
  12. Unconscious Thought
    according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories
  13. False Consensus Effect
    a cognitive bias whereby a person tends to overestimate how many people agree with them
  14. Validity
    the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
  15. Reliability
    the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on retesting
  16. Internal vs. External Locus of Control
    • Internal- the perception that you control your own fate
    • External- the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate
  17. Sense of Self (personality)
    the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions
  18. Self-Esteem
    one's feelings of high or low self-worth
  19. Medical Model
    the concept that psychological disorders can be diagnosed, treated, and cured in a hospital
  20. Biopsychosocial
    an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
  21. Axis I-V
    • I- is a clinical syndrome present?
    • II- is a personality disorder/mental retardation present?
    • III- is a general medical condition present?
    • IV- are psychosocial or environmental problems also present?
    • V- what is the Global Assessment of the person's functioning?
  22. What's wrong with labeling?
    self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them
  23. General Anxiety Disorder
    an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous arousal
  24. Schizophrenia
    a groups of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and behaviors (manifests around young adulthood)
  25. Phobia
    an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear
  26. OCD (obsessions vs. compulsions)
    an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
  27. PTSD
    an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety that lingers after a traumatic experience
  28. Bipolar (mania vs. depression)
    a mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
  29. Lobotomy
    a surgical procedure where the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the center of the inner brain are cut
  30. Positive/Negative Symptoms
    • positive- hallucinations, talking in deluded ways, inappropriate behavior
    • negative- toneless voices, expressionless faces, mute/rigid bodies
  31. Dissociative Identity Disorder
    a dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more personalities
  32. Epigenetic Factors
    diets, drugs, stress (change how genes are expressed)
  33. Depression
    a mood disorder in which a person experiences 2 or more weeks of diminished interest or pleasure in most activities; women are twice as depressed as men
  34. REBT
    a confrontational cognitive therapy, developed by Albert Ellis, that challenges people's illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptions
  35. CBT
    a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing one's actions)
  36. Placebo
    experimental results caused by expectation alone
  37. Pharmacology
    the branch of medicine concerned with the uses, effects, and modes of action of drugs
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Psych Final
2013-12-18 08:43:12
psychology final

psychology final
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