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retention independent of conscious recollection (driving)
Einstein's Brain was different how?
he had a larger corpus callosum, which carries electrical signals from one side of the brain to the other
a photographic memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events
therapy that applies learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors
behavioral therapies that treat anxieties by exposing people to the things they fear
Freud's Anxiety Responses
- Regression- reverting to a safer time in life
- Introjection- taking on the values of others
- Denial- closing one's eyes to reality
- Sublimation- diverting sexual/aggressive energy into other channels
- Displacement- shifting impulses to another that seems less threatening
- Reaction Formation- actively expressing the opposite behavior to remove focus from self
- Projection- attributing unacceptable traits to others, but not to self
- Rationalization- justification of certain behaviors
- Repression- painful thoughts and feelings that a person unconsciously excludes from reality
Projective Tests (intelligence)
a personality test (Rorschach) that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics
Masculine Identity Theory
boys raised by single fathers have problems with masculine identity
according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories
False Consensus Effect
a cognitive bias whereby a person tends to overestimate how many people agree with them
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
the extent to which a test yields consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores on retesting
Internal vs. External Locus of Control
- Internal- the perception that you control your own fate
- External- the perception that chance or outside forces beyond your personal control determine your fate
Sense of Self (personality)
the center of personality, the organizer of our thoughts, feelings, and actions
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
the concept that psychological disorders can be diagnosed, treated, and cured in a hospital
an integrated approach that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis
- I- is a clinical syndrome present?
- II- is a personality disorder/mental retardation present?
- III- is a general medical condition present?
- IV- are psychosocial or environmental problems also present?
- V- what is the Global Assessment of the person's functioning?
What's wrong with labeling?
self-identity and behavior of individuals may be determined or influenced by the terms used to describe or classify them
General Anxiety Disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous arousal
a groups of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and behaviors (manifests around young adulthood)
an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear
OCD (obsessions vs. compulsions)
an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety that lingers after a traumatic experience
Bipolar (mania vs. depression)
a mood disorder in which a person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
a surgical procedure where the nerves connecting the frontal lobes to the center of the inner brain are cut
- positive- hallucinations, talking in deluded ways, inappropriate behavior
- negative- toneless voices, expressionless faces, mute/rigid bodies
Dissociative Identity Disorder
a dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more personalities
diets, drugs, stress (change how genes are expressed)
a mood disorder in which a person experiences 2 or more weeks of diminished interest or pleasure in most activities; women are twice as depressed as men
a confrontational cognitive therapy, developed by Albert Ellis, that challenges people's illogical, self-defeating attitudes and assumptions
a popular integrative therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing one's actions)
experimental results caused by expectation alone
the branch of medicine concerned with the uses, effects, and modes of action of drugs