Attitudes: Functions and consequences
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What are functional approaches?
turn attitudes on their head. Instead of taking attitudes as a given and looking at their structure, they ask: “Just what benefits do attitudes provide? What if people did not have attitudes? What then?” The beauty of functional theory is that it helps us understand why people hold attitudes.
What are elements of the functional approaches?
- Social adjustive
- Social identity
People can have the same attitude but different reasons for this attitude, what are reasons?
- utilitarian reasons
- ego-defensive reasons
- social identity reasons
What does functional theory suggest a persuasive message is?
most likely to change an individual’s attitude when the message is directed at the underlying function the attitude serves. Messages that match the function served by an attitude should be more compelling than those that are not relevant to the function addressed by the attitude.”
What is the dark side too attitude functions?
An attitude can assist the person in coping with one problem, while carrying out a more harmful or dysfunctional effect in another area of the person’s life (social identity through shopping, but neglecting studying because of it; in this case, shopping can be seen as dysfunctional for studying).
What are the factors that moderate the attitude-behavior relationship?
- Situational factors: Norms & Roles, Scripts
- Characteristics of the person: Selfmonitoring, Direct Experience
- Characteristics of the attitude: General attitude towards the object, Specific attitude toward a behavio, attitude strenght
What is the influence of situational factors in the attitude-behavior relationship?
- Norms and Roles: They might have a strong attitude but do not show it because then they will violate a social norm
- Script: An organized bundle of expectations about an event or an activity sequence. You call on well learned rules about how to handle the situation
What is the influence of characteristics of the person in the attitude-behavior relationship?
- Selfmonitoring: High selfmonitors are concerd with displaying approriate behavior while low selfmonitors consult their iner feelings and attitues and are less concerned to dislplay appropriate behavior in social situations.
- Direct Experience: Attitudes formed through direct experience "are more clearly difined held with greater certainty, more stable over time, and more resistant to counter influence" they also come more quickly to mind than attitudes acquired through indirect experiences
WHat is the influence of characteristics of the attitude in the attitude-behavior relationship?
- General attitude: Global evaluation that cuts across different situations. Will not predict behavior
- Specific attitude: Evaluation of a single act or specific behavior that takes place in a particular context at a particular time. Will not forecast behavior in the collective
- Attitude Strenght: Strong attitudes are particularly likely to forecast behavior
What is the theory of reasoned action?
Assumed that people rationally calculate the costs and benefits of engaging in a particular action and think carefully about how important others will view the behavior under consideration.
What are the concepts of theory of reasoned action?
- Attitude towards the behavior
- Subjective Norm
- Behavioral intention
What is the theory of planned behavior?
Adds another component to the reasoned action model: Percieved behavioral control
What is percieved behavioral control?
is the individual’s perception of how much control he or she has over the behaviour, it is a subjective estimate of how easy or difficult it will be to perform the behaviour. The more I perceive that I can perform the action, the more successful I should be in translating intention into behaviour.
What is the core notion of accessibility theory?
Attitudes will predict behavior if they can be activated from memory at the time of a decision. If a person is in touch with her attitudes, she will act on tem. If not, she will be swayed by leading aspects of the situation. The attitude must come sponaniously to mind in a situation & The attitude must influence perception of an issue or person, serving as a filter through which the object is viewed
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