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What is the Likert Scale?
assumes that each item taps the same underlying attitude and there are significant interrelationships among items. It also presumes that there are equal intervals between intervals. Most researchers prefer 5- or 7-point scales because they allow respondents to indicate shades of grey in their opinions, but do not provide so many categories that people feel overwhelmed by choices (there are also 9- and 100-point scales).
What is the Guttman Scale?
Progresses from items easiest to accept those most difficult to endorse. Those with a high score on a Guttman scale agree with all items. Guttman scales are hard to construct. However, they can be usefull in tapping attitudes on sensitve topics like prejudice
What is a semantic differential scale?
- Semantic because it's used to ask people to indicate feelings about an object on a pair of bipolar, adjective scales.
- Differential comes from the fact that the scale asesses the different meanings people ascribe to a person or issue
What factors does inaccuracies result from in attitude scales?
- Respondent carelessness in awnsering the question
- Peoples desire to say the socaial approriate thing
- A tendency to agree
What are two key survey design factors that can influence attitude responses?
context and wording
What is context?
Survey questions appear on after another on a piece of paper, computer screen, or in an interview administred over the phone. Questions occuring early in the survey can influence responses to later questions
What is Wording?
Language is full of maening, capable of conveying powerful sentiments. The way a question in worded can influence respondent's evaluations of issues
What do key inducate measures include?
- Unobtrustive measures
- Physiological measurements
- Response time
What is unobtrusive measures?
Researchers can observe individuals unobtrustively (=bescheiden) or without their knowledge. Behavior is used as a surrogate for attitude
What is physiological measurements?
A physiological approach to attitudes has gained adherents in recent years as researschers have recognized that attitudes have a motor or bodily component. Physiological measures can be useful in tapping feelings people are not aware they have, or which they might choose to disguise on a questionnaire. Useful as these devices are, they can unfortunately tap responses other than attitudes (e.g. the interest or perplexity of someone). Also, it doesn’t provide a sensitive indication of the directionality of feelings (pro versus con). It is also frequently impractical or expensive to use physiological techniques.
What are kinds of pysiological measurements?
- Galvanic skin response: a change in the electrical resistance of the skin.
- Pupil dilation: precise assessments of expansion of the pupils.
- Facial electromyographic (EMG) techniques: tap the movements of facial muscles, particularly in the brow, cheek, and eye regions.
What is Response Time?
assess the latency or length of time it takes people to indicate if they agree or disagree with a statement. Researcher’s primary interest is how long it takes individuals to make their selection. The assumption is that the longer it takes people to access their attitudes, the less well developed or strong the attitude is (Implicit Association Test – IAT). Critics argue that the test does not measure individuals’ attitudes so much as the cultural associations they have learned. They worry the unfairly labelling individuals as prejudiced, based on a computerized test, can itself have dysfunctional effects on race relations.