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What are 2 main ways of processing information that are main elements of contemporary theories of persuassion?
- Careful consideration of message arguments
- Superficial examination of information and focus on single cues
What is the concerstone of models of attitude and behavioru change
Focus on process
What is the considerable evidence that learning is a component of persuasions?
The more people learn and comprehend message arguments, the more likely to accept the advocated positions
What assumes the Hovland/Yale model of Persuasion?
That people are sponge-like creatures who passively take in information they recieve. You actively think about the speaker, message, or persuasion context. You may remember message arguments, yet probably recall with greater accuracy your own criticisms of the speaker’s point of view.
What is Cognitive response approach to persuasion?
the view of persuasion developed in the years that fllowed the publication of Hovland's research. This approach asserts that people's own mental reaction to a message play a critical role in the persuasion process, typically a more important role than the messgge itself. Persuasion occurs if the communicator induces the audience member to generate favourable cognitive responses regarding the communicator or message.
What is forwarning?
occurs when a persuader warns people that they will soon be exposed to a persuasive communication. As cognitive response research predicts, forewarning someone significantly reduces the likelihood that a subsequent persuasive communication will succeed.
What is distraction hypothosis?
The distraction hypothesis holds that distraction facilitates persuasion by blocking dominant cognitive response to a message (for example by using humour, music, and sex).
What is the Elaboration Likelihood Model?
emphasizes that you cannot understand communication effects without appreciating the underlying processes by which messages influence attitudes. It is a dual-process model in that it claims that there are two different mechanisms by which communication affect attitudes.
What is elaboriation?
refers to the extent o which the individual thinks about or mentally modifies arguments contained in communication
What is Likelihood?
referring to the probability that an event will occur, is used to point out the fact that elaboration can be either likely or unlikely.
What is the Central route of the ELM?
The central route is characterized by considerable cognitive evaluation (individuals focus in depth on the central features of the issue, person, or message).
What is the Pherifal route in the ELM?
When processing peripherally, people invariably rely on simple decision-making rules or heuristics (communicator’s physical appeal, smooth speaking style, or pleasant with background music).
What are key factors to determine processing strategy?
Motivation and ability
What are motivational factors?
Involvement & Other motivational factors (need for cognition)
When are you cognitively able to ponder message arguments?
When you have knowledge
Why is Perifpheral processing a persuaders paradise?
It allows communicators to devise simplistic sometimes deceptvie appeals to influence individuals
Why do arguments not always carry the day in persuasion?
Strong arguments can fall on deaf ears when they run counter to an individual’s strong attitudes or values. Human being are not objective thinkers. The key is the degree to which the issue touches on an individual’s strong attitudes, values, or ego-entrenched positions. When the message focuses on a personally relevant outcome, people process arguments rationally, putting aside their biases as best they can, focusing on the merits of issue arguments. However, when the issue touches on core values or ego-involved schema, individuals can be extremely biased and selective in how they approach the issue. Make no mistake: in both cases, the process centrally, engaging in considerable thinking and evaluation the basic ideas contained in the message.
The ELM argues that theoratically a particualar variable can serve in one of three capacities. What are these capacities?
- Persuasive argument
- Peripheral cue
- Factor that influences thinking about the person or issue
What are critics of ELM?
- The ELM is so all inclusive that it is difficult to prove the model is incorrect
- It understates the role of emotion plays in persuasion
- The only advice the model offers is that communicators should induce audience members to generate positive thoughts on behalf of the message