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What are three types of message factors?
- Structure of the message (Sideedness, conclusion drawing, order of presentation)
- Content of the communication (Evidence, Case history, fear, guilt)
- Language (speed of speech, powerless vs powerfull language, intense, political)
What is one-sided message
Message with one perspective on the issue
What is a two-sided communication?
Offers arguments on behalf of both the persuader's position and opposition.
What is refutational two-sided messages?
messages that gain persuasive advantage by enhancing the credibility of the speaker and provide convincing reasons why opposing arguments are wrong
Depending on the conclusion, what kind of messages are more persuasive?
Messages that are more explicity articulating and overall conclusions because making the conclusion explicit minimizes the chances that indviduals will be confused aobut where the communicator stands
Why is there a little doubt that message organization influences attitudes?
Certain methods are more effective than others. But mesage organization does not work in a vacuum. Context and modality matter
What is evidence?
Factual statements orginating from a source other than the speaker, object not created by the speaker, and opinions of persons other tan the speaker that are offered in support of the speaker's claims.
When is evidence persuasive?
When attributed to a highly credible source and also more likely to change attitudes. The more plausible and original it is.
What must persuaders do more besides showing evidence?
audience members must recognize that evidence has been offered in support of a proposition and perceive the evidence to be legitimate. Evidence, in short, must be processed (ELM – central route must contain strong evidence and the peripheral route must contain impressive evidence). Evidence should be used to support arguments rather than distract audiences from the communicator or the message.
What is the optimum strategy?
Use both evidence and sotry. When artfully combined they pack a powerful punch
What is fear?
an internal emotional reaction composed of psychological dimensions that may be aroused when a serious and personally relevant threat is precieved
What is fear appeal?
a persuasive communication that tries to scare people into changing their attitudes by conjuring up negative consequences that will occur if they do not comply with the message recommendations.
What is appealing to people's fear?
To considerable degree, a negative communication strategy. The communicator must arouse a little pain in the individual, hoping it will produce gain.
What ways can scare strategy go to?
Arouse to little fear or backfire fi they scare individuals too much
The belief that one is less likely to experience negative life events then others is kown as unrealistic optismism or illusion of invulnerability:
- People do not want to admit that life's misfortunes can befall them
- People maintain a stereotype of the thypical victim and blithely maintain that they do not fit in the mold
- People decide to offload the costs of pleasure to the more mature adults they will become in the future
What does the drive model say?
If you scare someone and the reassure them, you can change a dysfunctional behavior
Wha two basic elemants contains a fear-arousing message?
Treat and efficacy information or a problem and solution.
How should a scare message be used?
First threaten the individual, convincing him or her that danger lukrs in the environment. After threatening or scaring the person, the message must provide a recommended respons. A way the indivudal can avert the threat (efficacy and self-efficacy)
What are the two cognitive processes at the core of the extended paralleel proces model (EPPM)?
Danger control and fear control
What dimentions involves guilt?
Ought and should
What key processes are in guilt appeal?
Empathy and efficacy
How is a moderately fast and fast speaker seen?
More intelligent, confident and effective then a slower speaking counterparts.
When a messages focuses on medical problems or personal dillema's slow speaking could be better, why?
Slow speech may convey communicator concern, empathy and goodwill
What is powerless speech?
A constellation of characteristics that may suggest to a message reciever that the communicator is less then powerful or not so confident
What are components of powerless speech?
Heistation, hedges, tag questions and disclaimers
What is powerful speech?
Marked by the cospicuous absence powerless comonents. Powerfull speech is usually more persuasive then powerless language depending on the context.
What includes language intensity?
Metaphors, strong and vivid language, emotionally charged words
What is the goal of political language?
to influence public attitudes and shape political agendas.
What are aspects of political speach?
Simplicity and frame
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