Cognitive Dissonance Theory
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What is cognitive Dissonance?
incongruity among thoughts or mental elements. Two cognitions are in a dissonant relationship when the opposite of one cognitive element follows from the other. It is specifically and formally defined as “a negative, unpleasant state that occurs whenever a person holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent.”
What does disonance theory suggest?
That changes in behavior can produce changes in attitude
What is dissonance?
When trying to make up their minds, people frequently experience difficulty, confusion, and conflict. It’s only after the decision is made that they experience the particular stress known as dissonance.
What techniques do people use to cope with cognitive dissonance?
- Change attitude
- add consonant cognition
- derogate the unchosen alternative
- spreat apart the alternatives
- alter the improtance of the cognitive elements
- suppress throughts
- change the behavior
Why do people rationalize?
People can devise a rationalization for anything they wish to do. Rather than admit they are wrong.They deny and distort reality, refusing to acknowledge that they made a mistake (ostrich-like behaviour: sticking their heads in the sand to avoid perspectives that might conflict with the option they chose).
What is a way to reduce dissonance?
convince oneself that the group has many positive characteristics that justify the expenditure of effort. People do not always rationalize effort by changing their attitude toward the group; they ay reduce dissonance in other ways – for example, by trivializing the initiation ritual.
What is induced compliance?
Dissonance theory makes the unusual prediction that, under the circumstance that you get offered a dollar to take a certain stance, you would actually come to evaluate the proposal favourably. This prediction is part of a phenomenon known as induced compliance
When is someone in a state of dissonance?
When individuals perform a counterattitudinal behaviour and cannot rationalize the act – as they could if they had received a large reward
When occures dissonance?
when you are concerned that you look bad in front of others. Perceiving that people think more favourably of you when you are consistent, they indicated on the survey that they liked the task, thus giving the impression that they exhibited consistency between attitude and behaviour.
What does disonance involve?
threat of self-esteem.
What does Dissonance theory suggest?
persuaders deliberately arouse cognitive dissonance and then let psychology do its work. Once dissonance is evoked, individuals should be motivated to reduce the discomfort. One way they can do this is to change their attitude in the direction the persuader recommends.
How can you diliberately arouse cognitive dissonance?
- Make a commitment public
- Encourage people to publicly advocate a position with which they disagree
- Confront people with their own hypocrisy
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