Interpersonal persuasion

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Interpersonal persuasion
2013-12-18 10:46:51

10. CPT23306
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  1. What are sequential influence techniques?
    The foot-in-the-door and door-in-the-face techniques. Influence in such cases “often proceeds in stages, each of which establishes the foundation for further changes in beliefs or behaviour. Individuals slowly come to embrace new opinions, and actors often induce others to gradually comply with target requests.”
  2. What is foot-in-the-door technique?
    stipulates that an individual is more likely to comply with a second, larger request if he or she has agreed to perform a small initial request. The behaviour that the persuader asks the person to initially perform is a setup to induce the individual to comply with the larger, critical request.
  3. What explains the foot-in-the-door tecnique?
    Self-Perception theory, consistency needs, social norms
  4. What is Self-Perception Theory?
    individuals who perform a small favour for someone look at their behaviour and infer that they are helpful, cooperative people.
  5. What is consistency needs?
    recalling that they agreed to the first request, individuals ding it dissonant to reject the second, target request.
  6. What is social norms?
    being asked to perform an initial small request makes people more aware of the norm of social responsibility, a norm that prescribes that one should help those who are in need.
  7. When does a foot-in-the-door teqnique work best?
    It is particularly likely to work when the request concerns a pro-social issue, such as asking for a donation to charity or requesting favours from strangers. Foot-in-the-door is also more apt to success then the second query is “a continuation,” or logical outgrowth, of the initial request, and when people actually perform the requested behaviour.
  8. What is the door-in-the-face technique?
    occurs when a persuader makes a large request that is almost certain to be denied. After being turned down, the persuader returns with a smaller request, the target request the communicator had in mind at the beginning. The door-in-the-face technique begins with a large request and scales down to an appropriately modest request
  9. What explains the door-in-the-face technique?
    Guilt, reciprocity, social judgement, self-presentation
  10. What is guilt?
    individuals feel guilty about turning down the first request. To reduce guilt, an unpleasant feeling, they go along with the second request.
  11. What is reciprocity?
    as a persuader (deliberately) scales down his request, he is seen as having made a compromise. This leads the persuadee to invoke the social rule that “you should make compromises to those who make compromises to you” or “you should meet the other fellow halfway.”
  12. What is social judgement?
    after having head the outrageous initial request, the second offer seems less costly and severe.
  13. What is self-presentation?
    people fear that the persuader will evaluate them negatively for turning down the first request. Not realizing that the whole gambit has been staged, they accede to the second request to make themselves look good in the persuader’s eyes.
  14. When does the door-in-the-face technique works best?
    when the request concerns pro-social issues. It effects also emerge when the same individual makes both requests.  The door-in-the-face technique is also more apt to work if there is only a short delay between the first and second request.
  15. What is lowballing?
    when a persuader induces someone to comply with a request and then “ups the stake” by increasing the cost of compliance.  Having made the initial decision to comply, individuals experience dissonance at the thought that they may have to back away from their commitment. Once individuals have committed themselves to a decision, they are usually unwilling to change their minds, even when the cost of a decision is raised significantly and unfairly. In low-balling, the action initially requested is the target behaviour; what changes is the cost associated with performing the target action.
  16. What is the that's-not-all technique?
    the salesperson presents a product and a price but does not allow the buyer to respond immediately. Instead, after a few seconds of mulling over the price, the buyer is told “that’s not all”; that is, there is an additional small product that goes along with the larger item.
  17. What is the fear-then-relief technique?
    the persuader deliberately place the recipient in a state of fear. Suddenly and abruptly, the persuader eliminates the threat, replaces fear with kind words, and asks the recipient to comply with a request.
  18. What is the pique technique?
    “making the request in an unusual and atypical manner so that the target’s interest is piqued, the refusal script is disrupted, and the target is induced to think positively about compliance.” Example: a bum asking for €0,17 instead of €0,20 (a whole coin). The pique procedure works because it disrupts our normal routine.
  19. What is the disrupt-then-reframe technique?
    first mildly disrupting “the ongoing script of a persuasive request” and then reframing the request or encouraging the listener to “understand the issue in a new way.” Example: start with “this package of card sells for 300 pennies” and then add, after pausing, “That’s 3 dollars. It’s a bargain.”
  20. What is compliance gaining?
    “any interaction in which a message source attempts to induce a target individual to perform some desired behaviour that the target otherwise might not perform.”
  21. How can strategies to gain compliance classified?
    according to whether they are: direct versus indirect, rational versus nonrational, hard versus soft, dominance-based versus non-dominance-based, external versus internal. Notice that the same techniques can be categorized in several ways (direct, rational, hard, and external).
  22. What aspects are important when gaining compliance?
    • Intimacy – context differ in the degree to which they involve intimate associations
    • between persuader and persuadee (level of intimacy predicted use of conflict-reducing strategies).
    • Dependency – people are more hesitant to use hard tactics when the other has control over important outcomes in their lives.
    • Rights – if a person does not feel he or she has the moral right to make a request, they
    • may use soft tactics. However, if they believe they have the right to make a request, or if they feel they have been treated unfairly, they are more apt to
    • employ hard techniques.
    • Other situational factors – situations also vary in the degree to which (a) the compliance benefits the persuader, (b) the influence attempt has consequences for the relationship between persuader and persuadee, and (c) the target resists the influence attempt.