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the reasons for the rise of open source
rise of the internet: open source’s greater enabler; communication tool that make massive decentralized projects possible;
excesses of IP: IP is in a legal regime so restrictive that free thinkers so desperate to find new ways to create
current methods are not fast, nor ambitious enough; they don’t take advantage of collective creative potential; open source is an alternative to the status quo as it facilitate intellectual collaboration
*counter example: Britannica, a proprietary model built on traditional notion of IP is undone by open source forces
what motivates Wiki contributors?
- lets users have a hand in designing the product
- greater good
- find it satisfying to put professional knowledge to a greater audience
- prove of their own ability
why copyright hinders innovation?
- Too long before innovative ideas and concepts enters the public domain
- Excesses of IP making it become offensive weapon that impedes rather than encourage innovations as they make it extremely difficult to share
The Ideals of Open Source
- SHARE THE GOAL: when a broad group of contributors recognize the same need and agree on how to meet it.
- SHARE THE WORK: Projects can be broken down into smaller tasks and distributed among armies of volunteers for execution accompanies by a review process that screens for the best contributions
- Share the results: code must be available for all to tweak and any improvements must also be shared
Does the web make us smarter?
• Linking together in turn lets us tap our cognitive surplus; our cognitive surplus is so enormous that diverting even a tiny fraction of time from consumption to participation can create enormous positive effects.
• Wikipedia took the idea of peer review and applied it to volunteers on a global scale, becoming the most important English reference work in less than 10 years. Ushahidi, the Kenyan crisis mapping tool invented in 2008, now aggregates citizen reports about crises the world over; PatientsLikeMe, a website designed to accelerate medical research by getting patients to publicly share their health information
• The Net, in fact, restores reading and writing as central activities in our culture.
• increased freedom to create throwaway material, as well as freedom to indulge in the experimentation that eventually makes the good new stuff possible.
• Though there are a lot of throwaway cultural artifacts, the issue is whether there are any ideas so good today that they will survive into the future; Several early uses of our cognitive surplus, like open source software, look like they will pass that test.
• Just as required education was a response to print, using the Internet well will require new cultural institutions as well so that we can integrate digital freedoms into society.
Does the web make us dumber?
- • The Web never encourages us to slow down. It keeps us in a state of perpetual mental locomotion.The Net, with its constant distractions and interruptions, is dividing our attention and turning us into scattered and superficial thinkers. We are losing control over our attention and our mind.
- • When we're constantly distracted and interrupted, as we tend to be online, our brains are unable to forge the strong and expansive neural connections that give depth and distinctiveness to our thinking.
- • What we seem to be sacrificing in all our skimming and searching online is our capacity to engage in the quieter, attentive modes of thought that underpin contemplation, reflection and introspection.
- • We become mere signal-processing units, quickly shepherding disjointed bits of information into and then out of short-term memory.
The Web is dead:Over the past few years, one of the most important shifts in the digital world has been the move from the …that use the Internet for transport but not the browser for display. It’s driven primarily by the rise of ….“…” technologies such as PointCast and Microsoft’s Active Desktop would create a “radical future of media beyond the Web.” Would create a …environment. Reasons for the rise of apps are that ….
• wide-open Web to semiclosed platforms; the iPhone model of mobile computing; Push; post-HTML
• dedicated platforms often just work better or fit better into their lives; as simpler, sleeker services — think apps — are less about the searching and more about the getting
why artists prefer a different approach to copyright
- • the way the laws are written, building upon existing works and sharing of works is presumptively illegal; creativity cannot be fully unleashed unless copyright law takes digital technology into account and allows for "access and sharing."
- • CC invites listeners to remix and upload a pair of tracks without fear of being taken to court for copyright violations.
- • Creative Commons concept "offers a better parallel market that does not require them to sign away their rights."; creativity can occur in a protected space without taking away anyone's rights."
- • a far more transparent system that broadens the market, gives the artist added control and reduces legal licensing costs for hip-hop artists
- Decentralized leadership approaches work well when an organization needs innovation and creative solutions from knowledgeable people who are familiar with the environment and know their role within the organization. The less hierarchical culture allows a free flow of ideas, yet people's experience and professionalism keep chaos from swamping the task.
- direct resources and adapt ("mutate") far faster than corporations can.
- • decentralized networks, knowledge and power are distributed throughout the system. As a result, the network is impervious to decapitation. No foolish or self-serving boss can wreck it, because it has no boss. Fragmentation, the bane of traditional organizations, actually makes the network stronger.
Pros of centralization
most efficient at getting things done. Central leader make decisions and set priorities and chains of command to hold everyone accountable. Centralization can quickly get people organized, motivated and on task because communication is predominantly directed from the top down.
A centralized leadership strategy is often essential to success in high-stake, fast-paced, time-critical emergencies in unforgiving environments.