oceans final

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nik8222
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253762
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oceans final
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2013-12-18 19:18:41
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oceans final
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  1. Divergent Plate Boundaries
    • i.e. spreading centers, ridges and rises, rift valleys
    • volcanoes (pure basalt magma); only shallow earthquakes.
  2. What does spreading rate determine
    whether one finds a ridge (slower) or a rise (faster)
  3. Convergent Plate Boundaries
    • i.e. subduction zones, trenches
    • composite magma volcanoes, shallow and deep earthquakes, large mountains, island-arc and continental-arc volcanic systems
  4. Types of Convergent (Collision) Plate Boundaries
    • Ocean-Ocean: Mariana Trench, Peru-Chile Trench, island-arc volcanoes
    • Ocean-Continent: Andes, Cascades, continental-arc volcanoes
    • Continent-Continent: Himalayas (India colliding with Asia), Alps
  5. Transform Plate Boundaries
    • i.e. San Andreas Fault
    • fault lines, horizontal movement, only shallow earthquakes, escarpments (mountains that are moved apart laterally)
  6. from a ridge to a trench:
    • Heat flow decreases 
    • Ocean floor ages in distance
    • Sediment increases in distance
  7. the coldest, oldest ocean floor with the most sediment is found at the
    trenches
  8. MOHO
    between crust and mantle
  9. Earth layers
  10. Continental Crust
    granite/lighter
  11. Oceanic Crust
    basalt/heavier
  12. Asthenosphere
    rest of the more “plastic” molten Mantle
  13. Outer core
    liquid iron/nickel
  14. Inner Core
    solid iron/nickel
  15. Continental Shelf
    larger on passive margins (USA east coast) and nearly non-existent on active margins (USA west coast).
  16. Shelf Break
    the sharp change of slope at the edge of the shelf.
  17. Continental Slope
    the steep drop-off after the break
  18. Continental Rise
    the more gentle drop-off after the slope down to the sea floor
  19. Erosion
    is stronger and more rapid on land (due to weathering) than in the deep oceans due to constant waves and currents
  20. Hot Spots
    • a plume of pure basalt magma that creates a “hole” in the tectonic plate; they turn “on” and “off” at regular intervals
    • they are “fixed” under the moving tectonic plates and in the oceans will create a series of linear volcanic peaks (islands and seamounts; e.g., Hawaii)
  21. Seamount
    a volcanic island that is underwater
  22. Guyot
    an eroded, flat-topped seamount
  23. Warm water islands may develop a:
    fringing coral reef
  24. Phase Change H20
    • 0.5 cal = heat required to raise 1 gram of ice or water vapor 1° C
    • 1 cal = heat required to raise 1 gram of liquid water 1° C
    • Latent heat of fusion (melting/freezing)  :  80 cal
    • Latent heat of vaporization (vaporization/condensation)  :  540 cal
  25. As water cools, it will reach its maximum density at:
    4°C
  26. Compensation Depth
    the depth at which photosynthesis rate balances respiration rate
  27. Stephan-Boltzman Law
    the hotter the object, the more energy it radiates
  28. Wien’s Law
    the hotter the object, the shorter the maximum wavelength of its radiation
  29. Greenhouse Effect
    • the atmosphere is fairly “transparent” to incoming short-wave solar radiation, but the “greenhouse gases” (carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, etc.) absorb the radiated long wave terrestrial (Earth) radiation and re-radiate that radiation back toward Earth, creating the “greenhouse” warming
    • As long as incoming short-wave radiation exceeds outgoing long-wave radiation, there will be a warming
  30. The Ozone (O3) “Hole”
    • is found over Antarctica and represents a reduced amount of Ozone (up to 70%)
    • not actual hole
  31. Walker Circulation
    the normal condition in the South Pacific; the trade winds blow the warm surface sea water westward, away from western South America, increasing sea level near Indonesia and tropical Australia and causing upwelling of cold water; high pressure over the eastern South Pacific and low pressure near Indonesia and tropical Australia.
  32. El Niño
    the trade winds relax (or even reverse direction); the warm surface sea water sloshes back toward South America and upwelling is suppressed off western South America
  33. Thermohaline Circulation
    the resulting convective motion caused by variation in density of sea water (caused by the variation of temperature and salinity)
  34. very cold, fresh (non-salty) water will _____ on top of salty sea water (warm or cold), creating a “freshwater lid.”
    float
  35. Ocean Currents
    the wind drives the surface currents; density differences (thermohaline circulation) between water layers drives the deep ocean currents
  36. Wavelengths
    is measured from crest to crest (or from trough to trough)
  37. shortest wavelength
    capillary waves
  38. longest wavelength
    tide waves
  39. long, slow, regularly shaped wave trains
    swell
  40. Energy of an Ocean Wave
    • is directly proportional to its wave height
    • (the taller the wave, the more energy)
  41. Standing Waves
    a non-progressive wave that reflects upon itself
  42. Single node standing wave (seiche)
    has one node (no movement) and two anti-nodes (maximum movement)
  43. Two node standing wave
    has two nodes and three anti-nodes
  44. Primary causes of tsunami
    • earthquakes
    • volcanic eruptions (especially on sea floor)
    • landslides
    • meteor, asteroid or comet impact
  45. Spring tide
    • New Moon and Full Moon
    • (Earth, Moon and Sun all aligned)
  46. Neap tide
    • First and Last (Third) Quarter
    • (Moon at 90° angle to Earth-Sun line)
  47. Diurnal tide
    one high tide and one low tide each day
  48. Semi-diurnal tide
    two high tides and two low tides each day, of roughly equal water level
  49. Mixed tides
    two high tides and two low tides each day, of unequal water level

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