Psych Chapter 6 & 7 Test

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Jhiles
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253819
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Psych Chapter 6 & 7 Test
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2013-12-18 23:40:31
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  1. Observational Learning
    learning by observing others. Also called social learning.
  2. Classical Conditioning
    a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events.
  3. Unconditioned Stimulus
    in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally--naturally and automatically-- triggers a response.
  4. Unconditioned Response
    in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
  5. Conditioned Stimulus
    in classical conditioning, an originally irrelevant stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US), comes to trigger a conditioned response.
  6. Conditioned Response
    in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus.
  7. Operant Conditioning
    a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
  8. Generalization
    the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.
  9. Shaping
    an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.
  10. Mirror neurons
    frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable imitation and empathy.
  11. Discriminative stimulus
    in operant conditioning, a stimulus that elicits a response after association with reinforcement (in contrast to related stimuli not associated with reinforcement).
  12. Latent learning
    learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive to demonstrate it.
  13. Primary reinforcers
    an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies biological need.
  14. Negative reinforcers
    any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (Note: negative reinforcement is not a punishment.)
  15. Fixed-interval schedule
    in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
  16. Variable-interval schedule
    in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
  17. Fixed-ratio schedule
    in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.
  18. Variable-ratio schedule
    in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
  19. Sensory memory
    the immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system.
  20. Echoic memory
    a momentary sensory memory of auditory stimuli; if attention is elsewhere, sounds and words can still be recalled within 3 or 4 seconds.
  21. Iconic memory
    a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli; a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second.
  22. STM/working memory
    activated memory that holds a few items briefly, such as the seven digits of a phone number while dialing, before the information is stored or forgotten.
  23. Spacing effect
    the tendency for distributed study or practice to yield better long-term retention than is achieved through massed study or practice.
  24. Chunking
    organizing items into familiar, manageable units; often occurs automatically.
  25. Mnemonics
    memory aids, especially those techniques that use vivid imagery and organizational devices.
  26. Long term potential
    an increase in a synapse's firing house of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
  27. Recall
    a measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
  28. Recognition
    a measure of memory in which the person need only identify items previously learned, as on a multiple-choice test.
  29. Rehearsal
    the conscious repetition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
  30. Relearning
    a measure of memory that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material for a second time.
  31. Encoding
    the processing of information into the memory system- for example, by extracting meaning.
  32. Storage
    the retention of encoded information over time.
  33. Retrieval
    the process of getting information out of memory storage.
  34. Proactive interference
    the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
  35. Retroactive interference
    the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information.
  36. Repression
    in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.
  37. Source amnesia
    attributing to the wrong source an event we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. (Also called source misattribution.) Source amnesia, along with misinformation effect, is at the heart of many false memories.
  38. Flashbulb memory
    a clear memory of an emotionally significant moment or event.
  39. Part of brain associated with creativity/imagination
    right side
  40. Insight
    a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem. It contrasts with strategy-based solutions.
  41. Heuristic
    a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms.
  42. Algorithm
    a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier- but also more error-prone -use of heuristics.
  43. Framing
    the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments.
  44. Semantics
    the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning.
  45. Syntax
    the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
  46. Belief perseverance
    clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited.
  47. Representativeness heuristic
    judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead us to ignore other relevant information.
  48. Semantic encoding
    the encoding of meaning, including the meaning of words
  49. Visual encoding
    the encoding of picture images
  50. Mood-congruent memory
    the tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
  51. Availability heuristic
    estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; is instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common.
  52. Telegraphic speech
    early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram- "go car" -using mostly nouns and verbs

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