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Describe how the fossil is biased. (What conditions promote preservation)
organisms with hard parts and marine environments lead to better preservation.
Why are there so many terrestrial fossils in Badlands Natl Park?
Rivers from the black hills rapidly carried sediment which preserved the terrestrial organisms.
What is a reef and how does it form?
Wave resistant structure that is built from plant/animal skeletons. (Stony Coral soak up calcium -- CO2 + Calcium)
What are the conditions required for reef formation?
Warm, clear nutrient rich water and sunlight.
What are the geological processes involved in cave formation?
Ground Water Table (separates saturated and unsaturated rocks) dissolves carbonate rocks.
Cave shape is determined by characteristics of the rocks (un/soluable beds)
What is a speleothem?
Minerals deposited in caves (Stalactite/Stalagmites)
How are speleothems named?
Shape and place of formation
Mammoth Cave vs Carlsbad Cavern (Size, Shape, Speleothems) What impacts these differences.
- M: Long and Narrow, Bedded, Few but active speleothems
- C: Huge deep rooms, Massive, Lots but inactive Speleothems
- Climate and Structure
Geometry of Folds (Anticlines, Synclines, Domes, Basins)
- Anticline (Rainbow)
- Syncline (Smile)
What type of stress causes folding in rocks.
Relative age of fold rock units (anticlines vs synclines)
- Anticlines: Older rocks exposed
- Synclines: Younger rocks exposed
How are joints different from faults?
Joints are a crack in a rock and faults happen from movement in the crust.
Hanging wall vs Foot wall
Hanging wall is on top, would walk on foot wall.
Type of motion from looking at hanging/foot walls.
Compression, Extension, Shear
How can the age of faults be determined?
Structural analysis, detailed mineralogy, Chemical analyses
What does Orogeny mean?
What type of tectonic activity and stresses form mountain ranges?
- Compressional Folding
- Compressional Faulting
- Extensional Faulting
What is the greenhouse effect?
Greenhouse gasses are caught in the atmosphere and they capture infrared radiation and re-emit it to the earth. Leads to more heat.
What kinds of info do scientists use to study climate change?
O18-O16 ratio, CO2 captured in polar ice, evolutionary changes in species, Shell composition of microscopic marine organisms, dist and type of glacial deposits.
What are the Milankovitch Cycles and how do they affect glaciation of the earth?
Tilt, Eccentricity (Orbital path), Wobble/Procession. This affects how much solar radiation is present.
When was the most recent glacial advance.
Pliestocine 2 million years ago
Erosional features produced by alpine and continental glaciation
striation (grooves) cirques (holes) u-shaped valleys, horns (mountain looking), hanging valley (has waterfalls)
Depositional features by alpine and continental glaciation
till (sediment carried by glacier), outwash (sediment from glacial water), Kettles (hole of sediment/water left by glacier)