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Who came up with the teleological argument?
What is a theologian?
Someone who believes in religion and writes about it
What objects did Paley compare when he was arguing the Teleological argument?
- A manmade object (pocket watch) and a natural object (rock).
- He said that manmade objects have a clear purpose, nature has so many patterns as well as unique things (DNA) that god must have created it.
Arguments against the teleological argument?
- If the world is designed by god then there can be nothing natural... Because everything would have been designed.
- Things that look designed may not have been
- There is nothing to say whether god created this world as good or bad
What was Newton's theory on God?
- He thought god was an intelligent designer.
- He saw the universe as a machine.
- Believed that the scientific laws were god's way of keeping things running smoothly
What things can suggest that the world was designed by god?
- Animals being perfectly adapts to their environment
- The food chain
- Day time for being awake, night time to allow time for rest and sleep
What is the cosmological argument also known as?
The first cause argument
Who was St Thomas Aquinas?
He was the idea behind the cosmological argument
Who was St Thomas Aquinas influenced by?
What does infinite regress mean?
It will go back forever
What does it mean if you say He is 'Sui generis'?
He created himself
What is the cosmological argument?
The idea that god was the trigger that set of the course of events that created the universe. That He was the first cause of everything
What is the Big Bang theory?
- The scientific explanation to the creation of the universe.
- The idea that the galaxy was created in a split second after a very sudden change in climate.
What is morality?
The sense of right and wrong
What is the golden rule of most religions?
Treat others how you want to be treated
What is the categorical imperative?
The ability to sense what we should do and what we shouldn't. This is something shared between humans. No one forces us to know it, but we already seem to
Who said that morality should be universal?
What is a visionary experience of God?
When someone has a vision of god
What is a conversion experience?
The experience of meeting god or Jesus that changes your view on religion as the impact of meetings them was so great.
What is a general revelation?
An experience where people interpret a feeling or event as an act of god they haven't seen him but they feel connected to him.
What is evidence?
Grounds for belief / disbelief
What is proof?
Any evidence that helps to establish a fact
What is certainty?
Something established as probable, being sure of something
What is probability?
Something that is likely to happen or be true
What is a belief?
An Idea accepted as true without positive proof
What is contemplative worship?
Worship that is quiet, usually solitary, involves thinking of one idea or image.
What is charismatic worship?
Worship that is happy and lively. People are spontaneous (laughing and dancing etc). They let the spirit of god work through them
What is sacramental worship?
Traditional and very structured. Follows rules and patterns. People receive god's blessings
Who is head of the Catholic Church?
The Pope (Francis I)
Who leads the Tibetan Buddhist faith?
What are theodices?
Theories as to why god allowed things to happen
What is Moral evil
When people are the cause of suffering
What is natural evil?
When natural disasters cause evil and suffering
What does Omnipotent mean?
Can do anything at all
What does benevolent mean
All loving And wants us to be satisfied
What does Omniscient mean
Knows everything that there is to know
What does it mean if you're Atheist?
You do not believe in the existence of God
What does it mean if you are theist?
You do believe the existence of God
What is an inconsistent triad
A triangle with qualities at each corner and you can only have two of those qualities
Name some examples of Moral evil
List some examples of natural evil
What are the four reasons to explain why moral evil exists?
- 1) 'the fall'- Adam and Eve - because people have free will
- 2) satan- we are tempted By the fallen angel Satan
- 3) All in the mind - evil exists because we are capable of evil acts
- 4) evil is an impersonal force in the world. It isn't controlled but is instead A random force in nature
What is the psychological phenomena to explain why moral even exists?
Because we are all capable of evil acts it all depends on circumstances such as your upbringing
Lost the seven theodicies that explain natural evil
- 1) god is punishing us
- 2) it is a test of faith
- 3) to educate us
- 4) to appreciate goodness
- 5) free will
- 6) it is just gods plan
- 7) satan causes it not god
What was St Augustine's theodicy on where evil comes from?
- He thought that Evil came from free will. He focused on Adam and Eve when they ate from the tree of knowledge. He believed that Adam and Eve brought dishonesty into the world.
- Evil is allowed to continue because humans still have free will. This includes natural evil and well as moral.
What was Gottfried Leibniz's theodicy as to where evil comes from?
- Evil comes from god, who wants us to get the best possible results and that it is all part of god's plan. Without evil, we would not be able to recognise the good in our world.
- Leibniz argues that if you felt pain for a long time, the goodness you felt after it will be better than if you had never felt the pain
What is Spinoza's theodicy as to why evil exists?
Spinoza argues that the world is perfect and that evil is just an illusion that evokes a feeling inside us all. He argues that humans assess situations incorrectly. If we were to look at everything's unique value we realise that there is no 'evil' and no 'good' but everything is just as good as each other.
Why do other religions not have the same problem with evil as Christianity?
- Because they don't describe god in the same way as Christians do (benevolent, omniscient and omnipotent)
- They have different gods (such as Hinduism)
- They have no God (such as in Buddhism)
In the Islamic faith, why might God cause you pain and suffering... Even though he loves you?
- He might cause you pain and suffering BECAUSE he loves you
- n Islam, what are the two reasons why God might punish you or cause you suffering?
- 1) a test of faith (you can't be brave unless you have a reason to be so)
- 2) s punishment (to help you to correct your errors)
What do Muslims believe about suffering?
It always has a purpose
In Islam, what is the state of unbelief called?
Why is the problem of suffering and evil different in Buddhism as opposed to Christianity?
Buddhists do not have any definite concept of God, which means they do not have a problem with questioning why god inflicts pain and suffering onto us, whereas Christians do.
What is suffering linked to for buddhists?
Desire and attachment
What are the four noble truths in Buddhism?
- 1st - life always contains suffering
- 2nd - suffering always comes from desire and attachment
- 3rd and 4th - explain how we must remove these desires in order to overcome suffering