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What is demography?
The study of people
What is population distribution?
How people are spread out in a certain area
What is population density?
How many people there are in a unit area (km2)
What calculation can be used to work out the population density of an area?
- Total population
- Total area
How would you figure out the natural increase or decrease of a country?
- Birth rate death rate
- Resulting in either increase or decrease
How would you figure out the annual population growth?
Birth rate-death rate plus or minus the migration in a year
What does exponential mean?
What fraction of the world is LEDCs?
At least 2/3 (and has been since approximately 1750)
What are farmers who only grow enough for themselves and their families called?
What is salinisation?
Salinisation describes the soil getting more salty.
What is desertification?
The process where land is turned into desert as a result of human activities
What is environmental degradation?
Where land and soil have been over worked and can no longer be used (they are destroyed)
Are people more likely to want to live on flat land or rocky mountainous land?
People tend not to live in areas that are.... (Physical features)
- too hot
- too cold
- mainly infertile land
- far away from food and water supplies
What factors could result in the death rates of a country falling?
- Greater level of hygiene
- Medical advances
- Safer workplaces
- Improvements in food production
Give an example of a country that is at the first stage of the demographic transition model
- Rainforest tribes as well
Give an example of a country that is at the second stage of the demographic transition model
Give an example of a country that is at the third stage of the demographic transition model
Give an example of a country that is at the fourth stage of the demographic transition model
Give an example of a country that is at the fifth stage of the demographic transition model
What could lead to the birth rate of a country decreasing?
- Emancipation of women
- Fewer females than males (vice verca)
Why might birth rates be high in a country?
- Little or no contraception
- Children are needed to work on the land
- Children are a sign of virility
- Couples belong to a certain religion.
Why might the death rates of a country be high?
- Poor diet
- Poor hygiene
- Little medical knowledge
Why might birth rates fall?
- Better family planning
- Lower infant mortality
- Increased industrialisation
- Increased desire for material goods
- Emancipation of women
What do we call the exponential growth in the worlds population over the last few hundred years?
The population explosion
What is the name of the graph used to show the five stages in a population?
Demographic transition model
What are the three groups of people shown on a population pyramid?
- Dependant elderly
- Economically active adults
- Dependant children
What do population pyramids show?
The structure of a country's population. The structure refers to the age and gender of the population.
What does the height of a population pyramid show?
- The life expectancy.
- The higher the pyramid the longer the life expectancy
What do the sides of a population pyramid show?
The death rate
What does the base of a population pyramid show?
The birth rate
What are some of the problems related to having a high population growth in LEDCs?
- Food shortages
- Land, air and water pollution
- Lack of public services (eg schools)
- Increased demand for natural resources
What does it mean if an area is semi-arid
Only receives rainfall for one season
What is the rough ratio of boys to girls in china
What is the estimated number of unmarked men by 2020 in china?
What percentage of china is Han race?
How much would a family have to pay to be allowed a second child?
A years wages
Under what conditions can a family try for a second child?
- If the first is a girl, they can try again after 5 years.
- Death of child
What is an example of an area that has a non-birth control policy?
What fraction of the world's total population does china take?
How much did the birth rate in china fall after the introduction of the one child policy?
From 31 per 1000 to 19 per 1000
How many births has the one child policy in china prevented (approx)
How many people live in india?
- 1.1 billion people
- (2nd largest population)
What is the literacy rate in Kerala?
- What is the life expectancy of a person in Kerala?
- 73 years
Define push factors
The negative aspects of a place that encourage a person to move away.
Define: Pull factors
The attractions and opportunities of a place that encourage people to move there
What is migration?
The movement of people from one permanent home to another with the intention of staying at least a year. This move may be within a country (national migration) or between countries (international migration)
What is a 'destination' (in terms of immigration)
The country where a migrant settles
What is a country of origin?
The country where a migration starts
What is an immigrant?
Someone entering a country with the intention of living there
What is an emigrant?
Someone leaving their country of residence to move to another country
What is forced migration?
When people are driven out of an area. This may be due to physical factors (natural disasters etc) or human factors (war etc)
What is voluntary migration?
People who choose to move for a better life and services (eg jobs)
What is national migration?
Where people move within a country.
What is in-migration?
When people move to an area (eg rural to urban)
What is international migration?
People move to another country
What is emigration?
Movement of people from one country to another
What is immigration?
Movement of people into a country from another country