GEOGRAPHY COASTAL ZONE.txt

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shotguniall
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253878
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GEOGRAPHY COASTAL ZONE.txt
Updated:
2013-12-19 10:16:55
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GEOGRAPHY COASTAL ZONE COASTS
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COASTAL ZONE
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  1. Coastal zone
    The area where the land meets the sea
  2. Weathering
    The breakdown (decay) of rocks "in situ" on the Earth's surface
  3. Biological weathering
    The breakdown of rocks by living organisms (vegetation and animals)
  4. Physical/mechanical weathering
    Weathering caused by physical changes in the weather (wind, rain, frost etc)
  5. Chemical weathering
    Weathering that involves a chemical change taking place (weathering caused by chemical reaction)
  6. Mass movement
    The downhill movement of material under the influence of gravity (eg landslides and slumping)
  7. Erosion
    The process by which the surface of the earth is worn away by waves
  8. Hydraulic action
    The sheer pressure of the waves/water on the rock or coastline
  9. Abrasion (corrasion)
    He effect of rocks being thrown/hurled at a cliff by the power of the waves
  10. Attrition
    The knocking together of pebbles which breaks them down and makes them smaller and smoother
  11. Solution (corrosion)
    The breakdown of rocks by chemicals in the water
  12. Transportation
    The action of sediment being carried along by the waves
  13. Longshore drift
    • Transportation of sediment along the coast line caused by waves approaching the shore at an angle in the direction of the prevailing wind
    • The net movement of sediment along a coastline in a zig zag pattern
  14. Traction
    Heavy particles rolled along the seabed
  15. Saltation
    A hopping movement of pebbles along the seabed
  16. Solution (transport)
    The transport of dissolved chemicals
  17. Suspension
    Small materials carried within the water
  18. Deposition
    The laying down the sediment transported by water ice or wind
  19. Headland
    A promontory of land jutting out into the sea
  20. Fetch (of a wave)
    The distance of open water which the wind can blow
  21. Constructive wave
    A powerful wave with a strong swash that surges up a beach
  22. Destructive wave
    A wave formed by a local storm that crashes down onto the beach and has a powerful backwash
  23. Beach
    A deposit of sand or shingle at the coast often found at the head of a bay
  24. Tall breaker (in terms of waves)
    Wave that breaks downwards with great force
  25. Differential erosion
    Erosion that happens at different rates (based on what the land is made from)
  26. Spit
    • A ridge of shingle or sand attached to the land at one end and finishing in the open sea at the other.
    • A spit is a landform of coastal deposition formed by longshore drift
  27. Example of spits:
    • Bleakney point
    • Spurn Head (holderness coastline)
  28. Salt marsh
    Low lying coastal wetland mostly extending between high and low tide
  29. Habitat
    The home to a community of plants and animals
  30. Pioneer species
    The first plant species to colonise an area/that is well adapted to living in a harsh environment
  31. Succession
    A sequence of plant species that start to colonise the area gradually
  32. Conservation
    The careful and planned use of resources in order to manage and maintain the natural environment for future generations
  33. Example of a salt marsh
    Keyhaven marshes in Hampshire
  34. What is cordgrass?
    Found in marshes, is a spiky, untidy looking plant
  35. What is sea lavender?
    Found in marshes, an attractive colourful flower that wildlife is greatly attracted to
  36. Examples of animals found by marshes:
    Oystercatcher birds, ringed plover, common blue butterfly, wold spider
  37. Hard engineering
    • The use of larger scale construction materials to protect the coastline from flooding and erosion
    • eg a sea wall or groyne
  38. Soft engineering
    • Managing the coastline along side natural processes and the environment s that the approach is sustainable.
    • An example is managed retreat or beach replenishment (nourishment)
  39. Conservation
    Using and protecting the natural environment (area or habitat) so that it is not lost
  40. Sustainable
    Working with and using the environment so that future generations can also benefit

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