Patho Test 2

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Patho Test 2
2010-06-30 21:10:50

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  1. These are found in the bone marrow & are parent cells of all blood cells.
    Pluripotent stem cells
  2. This type of tissue is found in the bone marrow & supports the blood forming cells.
  3. This is a stem cell that is committed to a specific line of blood cells (i.e. committed to forming red cells).
    CFU (colony forming unit)
  4. This is a general term for a substance released by a cell that has an effect on another cell.
  5. In the bone marrow, cytokines act on the stem cells to cause the stem cell to make more of whatever it makes. In this instance, what are the cytokines called?
    CSF (colony stimulating factors)
  6. This is another name for the colony stimulating factors (CSF) for RBCs.
  7. This helps WBCs recover faster after chemo, so the pt can get their next chemo sooner.
    Granuloycte-monocyte CSF (GM-CSF)
  8. This is where lymphocytes proliferate, mature & interact w/ antigens.
    Lymphoid tissue
  9. 1% of total blood volume is made of this, and although this is a small #, they're really important.
    WBCs or Leukocytes
  10. Normal range for WBCs:
  11. This is a type of WBC that has subtypes including neutrophils, eosinophils & basophils.
  12. These should be about 60% of total WBCs.
  13. These are also called polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs).
  14. These granulocytes are primarily responsible for fighting off infection.
  15. In severe, overwhelming infections, the neutrophils will be __ b/c there are either too many in the tissues or the bone marrow isn't able to keep up. This is really bad!
  16. These make up about 3% of total WBCs and are increased in allergic reactions & parasitic infections.
  17. These granulocytes make up <1% of the total WBCs and are important in allergies, but not very.
  18. These make up 30% of circulating WBCs and have 3 major subtypes including B cells, T cells & NK cells.
  19. These are often called humoral or antibody based immunity. They respond to foreign invasion using antibodies. Some become plasma cells which produce antibodies.
    B cells
  20. These are responsible for the cellular immune response (response to foreign invasion mediated by cells).
    T cells
  21. These are also called helper cells.
    CD4+ T cells
  22. These are also called effector cells or killer cells.
    CD8+ T cells
  23. These make up about 8% of the total WBCs and are important in chronic inflammation & presenting antigens to T cells.
    • Monocytes (circulation)
    • Macrophages (tissues)
  24. These are young, immature neutrophils.
  25. If bands are > 1-3% of total WBCs, this is called what and is a sign of what?
    • A shift to the left
    • Earliest sign of an acute bacterial infection
  26. This is a more expensive way to get the WBC count, but it's more accurate.
    Manual Differential
  27. This is another name for elevated WBCs.
  28. If absolute neutrophil count is <1500-1000, then what?
    At significant risk of severe infection
  29. How do you calculate the absolute neutrophil count (ANC)?
    ANC = WBC * (% neutrophils + % bands)
  30. This is the term for circulating neutrophils <1500.
  31. This is the term for circulating neutrophils <200.
    Absolute neutropenia
  32. This is the most common cause of decreased WBCs.
  33. Usual signs of inflammatory response may not be there when this is going on.
  34. This type of cancer comes from hematopoietic precursors in the bone marrow
    This other type of cancer arises from the peripheral lymph tissue.
    • Leukemia
    • Lymphoma
  35. This is the leading cause of death between ages 1-14.
  36. This hematopoietic disease is increased in Down's syndrome.
  37. This is the most common childhood cancer & is most often from __ cells.
    • Acute lymphocytic leukemia
    • B cells
  38. This is most often an adult leukemia.
    Acute myelogenous leukemia
  39. CBC will show what if acute leukemia?
    • Anemia
    • Thrombocytopenia
    • Increased WBCs
  40. Do lumbar puncture w/ this leukemia to see if in CNS.
    Acute lymphocytic leukemia
  41. This test will show you which type of leukemia.
    Bone marrow biopsy
  42. A blood peripheral smear will show what in a pt w/ acute leukemia?
    Immature forms of WBCs
  43. This is the mainstay of tx for acute leukemia.
  44. This type of chronic leukemia is most from B cells & mostly in >50 yo.
    Chronic leukocytic leukemia
  45. This type of chronic leukemia mostly occurs in 30-50 yo.
    Chronic myelogenous leukemia
  46. This type of leukemia is associated w/ the Philadelphia chromosome.
  47. This is the term for chronic leukemia becoming acute.
    Terminal blast crisis
  48. There is no specific tx for this type of leukemia unless there are sx's or WBC>150,000. In this instance, give what?
    • CLL
    • Chemo
  49. This leukemia can be cured w/ a bone marrow transplant.
  50. This is a solid tumor derived from neoplastic lymphoid tissue and it's the 6th most common CA.