Patho Test 2
Card Set Information
Patho Test 2
These are found in the bone marrow & are parent cells of all blood cells.
Pluripotent stem cells
This type of tissue is found in the bone marrow & supports the blood forming cells.
This is a stem cell that is committed to a specific line of blood cells (i.e. committed to forming red cells).
CFU (colony forming unit)
This is a general term for a substance released by a cell that has an effect on another cell.
In the bone marrow, cytokines act on the stem cells to cause the stem cell to make more of whatever it makes. In this instance, what are the cytokines called?
CSF (colony stimulating factors)
This is another name for the colony stimulating factors (CSF) for RBCs.
This helps WBCs recover faster after chemo, so the pt can get their next chemo sooner.
Granuloycte-monocyte CSF (GM-CSF)
This is where lymphocytes proliferate, mature & interact w/ antigens.
1% of total blood volume is made of this, and although this is a small #, they're really important.
WBCs or Leukocytes
Normal range for WBCs:
This is a type of WBC that has subtypes including neutrophils, eosinophils & basophils.
These should be about 60% of total WBCs.
These are also called polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs).
These granulocytes are primarily responsible for fighting off infection.
In severe, overwhelming infections, the neutrophils will be __ b/c there are either too many in the tissues or the bone marrow isn't able to keep up. This is really bad!
These make up about 3% of total WBCs and are increased in allergic reactions & parasitic infections.
These granulocytes make up <1% of the total WBCs and are important in allergies, but not very.
These make up 30% of circulating WBCs and have 3 major subtypes including B cells, T cells & NK cells.
These are often called humoral or antibody based immunity. They respond to foreign invasion using antibodies. Some become plasma cells which produce antibodies.
These are responsible for the cellular immune response (response to foreign invasion mediated by cells).
These are also called helper cells.
CD4+ T cells
These are also called effector cells or killer cells.
CD8+ T cells
These make up about 8% of the total WBCs and are important in chronic inflammation & presenting antigens to T cells.
These are young, immature neutrophils.
If bands are > 1-3% of total WBCs, this is called what and is a sign of what?
A shift to the left
Earliest sign of an acute bacterial infection
This is a more expensive way to get the WBC count, but it's more accurate.
This is another name for elevated WBCs.
If absolute neutrophil count is <1500-1000, then what?
At significant risk of severe infection
How do you calculate the absolute neutrophil count (ANC)?
ANC = WBC * (% neutrophils + % bands)
This is the term for circulating neutrophils <1500.
This is the term for circulating neutrophils <200.
This is the most common cause of decreased WBCs.
Usual signs of inflammatory response may not be there when this is going on.
This type of cancer comes from hematopoietic precursors in the bone marrow
This other type of cancer arises from the peripheral lymph tissue.
This is the leading cause of death between ages 1-14.
This hematopoietic disease is increased in Down's syndrome.
This is the most common childhood cancer & is most often from __ cells.
Acute lymphocytic leukemia
This is most often an adult leukemia.
Acute myelogenous leukemia
CBC will show what if acute leukemia?
Do lumbar puncture w/ this leukemia to see if in CNS.
Acute lymphocytic leukemia
This test will show you which type of leukemia.
Bone marrow biopsy
A blood peripheral smear will show what in a pt w/ acute leukemia?
Immature forms of WBCs
This is the mainstay of tx for acute leukemia.
This type of chronic leukemia is most from B cells & mostly in >50 yo.
Chronic leukocytic leukemia
This type of chronic leukemia mostly occurs in 30-50 yo.
Chronic myelogenous leukemia
This type of leukemia is associated w/ the Philadelphia chromosome.
This is the term for chronic leukemia becoming acute.
Terminal blast crisis
There is no specific tx for this type of leukemia unless there are sx's or WBC>150,000. In this instance, give what?
This leukemia can be cured w/ a bone marrow transplant.
This is a solid tumor derived from neoplastic lymphoid tissue and it's the 6th most common CA.