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#of carb grams covered by 1 unit of insulin
insulin-to-carbohydrate ratio (ICR)
# of mg/dL one unit of insulin lowerS glucose
insulin sensitivity factor (ISF)
Main site of action of biguanides & what is the name of the medicine(s)?
How does metformin control bg?
keeps liver from releasing too much glucose
Main site of action of sulfonylureas & what is the name of the medicine(s)?
- glyburide, glipizide
How do glyburide and glipizide control bg?
By stimulating the pancreas to release more insulin
Which oral med(s) can cause hypoglycemia?
sulfonylureas (glyburide, glipizide)
Main site of action of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) & what is the name of the medicine(s)?
How do TZDs control bg?
makes muscle cells more sensitive to insulin
When is metformin contraindicated?
- kidney problems, severe lung dz or liver dz
- if creatitine is >1.5 in men or >1.4 in women
rapid acting insulin: onset, peak, duration
regular insulin: onset, peak, duration
intermediate insulin: onset, peak, duration
long acting insulin: onset, peak, duration
what insulins are basal and what are bolus
- basal: long-acting and intermediate
- bolus: rapid-acting and fast-acting
mechanism of action of DPP-4 inhibitors
what are the benefits and disadvantages
- works on postprandial bg by increasing insulin secretion
- no hypoglycemia & well-tolerated
- high cost
mechanism of action of GLP-1 agonists
what are advantage and disadvantage
- increase insulin secretion, slows gastric emptying, increased satiety
- no hypoglycemia & wt loss
- high cost & possible N/V
possible side effects of TZDs
liver damage, swelling of feet and legs
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