EOS 205 MT to FE

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  1. what is the difference between symetry opperator and operation?
    opperation is the effect (reflection inversion etc.)

    operator is what causes it (i.e. a mirror plane etc.)
  2. what is a symetry fold?
    the number of times that opperation must take place to get back back to identical shape

    • 2-fold= two repitions to get original motif
    • 1fold=360
    • 2-fold= 180
    • 3-fold=120
    • 4-fold=905 fold non exsitent
    • 6-fold=60
  3. Light behaves as (2 items)
    light behaves as a photon (particles of energy)

    light behaves as a wave
  4. what is a wave front
    • a surface conectining similar points on a wave
    • (think of the derivation of snells law)
  5. What is a light ray?
    the direction of propogation of the wave
  6. what is wave normal?
    lines at right angles (perpindicular) to the light ray

    (a wave front is normal to the ray)
  7. what is an opaque mineral and two examples
    • opaque does not transmit any light (ppl or xpl)
    • magnetite and ilmenite
  8. what is an isotropic mineral two examples
    isotropic means the Ri of the mineral is the same regardless of the direction the ray passes through it

    thus it does not transmit light under xpl

    examples are glass (not a mineral no xstal structure) and garnett
  9. what is anisotropic
    the RI is dependent on the direction the ray travels through it

    thus it creates interference colors and birefrigence under xpl

    examples hundreds
  10. what is the becke line how is it used?
    its a band or rim of light along the grain of a boundry that helps determine the index of refraction of the grain compared to its mounting medium
  11. all minerals except those in what crystal system are anisotropic
    the only crystal system producing isotropics are the cubic/isometric  system
  12. lenght slow vs lenght fast
    the accesoory plate has a pice of gypsum that creates a slow ray

    lenght slow= slow on slow (mineral slow matches accessory slow) color increases

    leng fast = fast on slow (mineral fast on accessory slow) color decreasess
  13. differentiate between isogyre, isochrom and melatope
    with both bertram and accessory in

    • melatope is the location of the optic axis
    • isogyre is the black cross
    • isochromes are the rings of color
  14. what is the difference between petrology and petrography
    petrology - description, modes of occurence and theories for the origin of rocks

    petrography is the description and classifications of rocks

    • basicly petrology is classifying how/why it formed
    • petrography is where it belongs once formed
  15. cost of the three anylitcal methods from cheapest to most expensive and make a coment about each
    cheapest petrographioc microscope- very limitied info on all fronts

    EMP middle cost (great info on comp none on structure)

    XRD most expensive (opposite of EPM)
  16. How is magma generated?
    By partial melting of material

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  17. Decompression (adiabatic) melting and where is it most typical
    As a material moves upward in the crust it decompress, less P, if adiabatic( no heat flow) it will remain at the same temperature. This brings the material across the solidus

    most typically at the MOR's
  18. What is freezing point depression melting and where does it occur?
    the melt point is lowered by the introduction of another substance (typically water). Material can stay at same pressure but will melt at lower T due to intro of H2O

    this happens at subduction zones
  19. What are the basic steps to make a crystal (1-3)
    1. cooling and saturation create nucleation

    2. the unit cell (smallest divisible part of xstal) germination on nucleases

    3. growth building of the xstal - dependent on difusion rates
  20. what is the diffusion rate? What is Flux?
    Diffusion rate is the Ion transportation rate in a liquid dependent on T and is diffrent for all cations

    Flux is the mass per unit time for xstal growth
  21. mafic vs felsic diffusion
    mafic diffusion tends to be much slower then felsic diffusionn rates
  22. pegmatic - what does it mean how is it formd
    pegmatic means large coarse crystals

    • ΔT1= low undercooling
    • nuc-ρ=low
    • diffusion=high

    • *less nucleii larger xstal
    • **typ intrusive formation
  23. phaneritic- what does it mean how is it formed
    phanericit is medium grained crystal

    • ΔT2= medium undercooling
    • nuc-ρ=high
    • diffusion=high

    *lots of nuclei and good growth
  24. aphanitic- what does it mean how is it formed
    Aphanitic is very fine grained crystals

    • ΔT3= high undercooling
    • nuc-ρ=very high
    • difusion=very low

    • *lots of nucleii no growth
    • **typ extrusive formation
  25. what is porphyritic how is it formed?
    this is a mix of large and small crystals formed by multi stage cooling
  26. a pyroxene is a(n)_______________
    inosillicate Y2Z2O6 or YYZ2O6
  27. what creates zoning in a crystal
    change in envoirnment
  28. what is provenance
    a term used to refer to the sources of elements and acient tectonic settings
  29. give an example of chemical weathering and the three products chemical weathering creates
    ortho + carbonic acid + water => kaolinite + dissolved solids

    • products 
    • 1. resistate minerals (those not effected by Chem weathering)
    • 2.authigenic minerals (secondary formed by chemical recombination)
    • 3. souluble ions in solution
  30. how are sed rocks classified?
    • by QFL+M
    • that is the coposition of 
    • Quartz, feldspar, lithic fragments and matrixes
  31. what is diagenisis, what is the role of authengenic minerals
    the burial/transportation of 'sediment' to sedimentary rock- i.e. lithifacation

    authengenic minerals will precipitate out of solution and fill poor space and create a cement (carbonates clays and silicates)
  32. what are the two most common chemical sed rocks
    • limestone caco3
    • dolostone camg(co3)2
  33. What are phylosillicates
    give two examples
    clay minerals that contain a hydroxyl (OH) group

    that have either a 1:1 (T-O) or a 1:2 (T-O-T) layerd ratio

    • TO=kaolinite
    • TOT=biotite
  34. what are the common end members of the carbonates group (SCAMD)
    • Dolomite
    • calcite
    • siderite 
    • ankerite
    • magnesite
  35. what is the starting point of metamorphism?
    metamorphism starts when the protolith (parent rock) surpasses diagenisis at aprox 200 deg C
  36. what is the diference between intensive and extensive properties in  mineralogy?
    this refers to variables that may or may not depend on the size/extent of the system

    intensive  is a bulk property and is not depent (P T) 

    extensive does depend on the system (ΔH S V)
  37. how does heat transfer during orogeny work?
    • cold point C at left (footwall) of thrust fault near surface
    • hot point H below surface to right (hanging wall)

    • thrusting pusshes hanging wall over footwall bring H and C to same depth 
    • C heats due to residual heat from H
  38. what are the four basic principles that control metamorphism
    • heat
    • pressure
    • fluids
    • deviatoruic stress
Card Set:
EOS 205 MT to FE
2013-12-20 06:27:42

for mineralogy final
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