Biology Exam REVIEW

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Biology Exam REVIEW
2013-12-20 02:48:17
overview freaking exam

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  1. 7 characters of living
    • 1. structure
    • 2. reproduction
    • 3. genetic code
    • 4. growth and development
    • 5. obtain and use energy
    • 6. respond to environment
    • 7. change over time
  2. difference between Eukaryotic and prokaryotic
    Eu: uni/multicellular, true nucleus, membrane bound organelles, plants and animal cell

    Pro: Unicellular, lack membrane, bacteria
  3. difference between viruses and living things
    • viruses:
    • can only reproduce by infecting cells
    • no cytoplasm
    • no internal metabolism
    • use machinery to infect and move around

    • Living:
    • reproduce asexually or sexually
  4. what do all viruses have in common?
    • Capsid
    • proteins
    • genetic information (DNA/RNA)
    • tobacco mosaic virus
    • adenovirus
    • influenza virus
    • T4 Bacteriophage Virus
  5. 1. controls what goes in and out of the cell.
    2. surrounds the plant cell and prevents it from exploding
    3. provides energy
    4. makes protein synthesis
    5. packages proteins
    6. contains fluids
    7. holds DNA and works as brain of the cell
    8. provides energy and makes food for plant cells
    9.breaks down old unneeded parts of the cell
    10. helps chromosomes move during cell division
    11. makes parts needed to build a ribosome
    • 1. cell membrane
    • 2. Cell wall
    • 3. Mitochondria
    • 4. Ribosome
    • 5. Golgi Apparatus
    • 6. Vacuoles
    • 7. Nucleus
    • 8. Chloroplast
    • 9. Lysosome
    • 10. Centrioles
    • 11. Nucleolus
  6. Lytic and Lysogenic cycles:
    • Lytic:
    • Virus goes in
    • places DNA in cell
    • More Viruses form in cell
    • they break free by tearing the cell apart

    • Lysogenic:
    • Virus goes in
    • places DNA in cell
    • The cell divides with the genetic code
    • Virus usually stays dormant until it feels the need to break free, which sometimes turns into a lytic
  7. what is the phospholipid bilayer?
  8. 3 organelles present in all living things:
    • membrane
    • nucleus
    • cytoplasm
  9. epithelial, vascular and connective tissues and their function.
    Epithelial: tissue that covers the surface of the body and lines internal organs

    Vascular: type of plant tissue specialized to conduct water

    connective tissue: tissue that holds organs in place and binds different parts of the body together
  10. Cilia and flagella
    Cilia: helps movement in many cells (mesle pashm mimoone)

    Flagella: Helps movement in cells like sperm or bacteria
  11. stomata and Guard cells:
    Stomata: porelike openings in the underside of the leaf that allow carbon dioxide and oxygen diffuse into an out of the leaf

    Guard Cells: control the opening and closing of stomata by responding to changes in water pressure
  12. phloem and xylem
    brings water and nutrients

    • Phloem: goes down
    • Xylem: goes up
  13. structure of DNA
    Nitrogen Bases
    Purine and pyrimidine
    • double helix
    • made up of deoxyribose, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base
    • A, T, C, G
    • Purine: A and G ( Pure as Gold)
    • Pyrimidine's: C and T (Cut the pie(pyrimidine))
  14. role of mRNA
    copies the genetic material and carries it to a ribosome for making a DNA copy on the backwards side
  15. how temperature affects enzyme function:
    enzymes have a preferred catalase temperature, where as if it gets too hot it'll get denatured for it shall not return to its former state again.
  16. some major functions of proteins:
    • enzyme
    • hormones
    • transport proteins such as hemoglobin
    • contractile proteins such as in muscle tissue
    • antibodies
    • membrane proteins
    • structural proteins like bones and muscles
  17. how enzymes work to break larger molecules into smaller ones
    • through digestion processes
    • ex. saliva, or stomach acids
  18. characteristics of diffusion
    • not limited to liquids
    • passive transport
    • requires no energy
    • from high-> low concentration
  19. Osmosis
    • Tries to get homeostasis
    • passive
    • requires no energy
    • high->low
  20. passive and active transport
    • Passive:
    • no energy
    • High->Low concentration
    •      types of passive:
    •             * osmosis 
    •             * Diffusion/Facilitated diffusion

    • Active:
    • requires energy
    • ATP
    • Low-> High concentration
    •       Types of Active:
    •               * Active Transport
  21. Hypertonic, Hypotonic, Isotonic
    • Hypertonic: more solute than Solvent
    • Hypotonic: more solvent than solute
    • Isotonic: Equal solvent and solute
  22. if the concentration is looking for a solvent its:
    Solute its:
    • Solvent: osmosis
    • Solute: Active, Diffusion, Facilitated Diffusion
  23. equation for photosynthesis:
    • 6CO2+ 6H2O -light--> C6H12O6 + 6O2
    • Carbon and water ---------> sugar and oxygen
  24. equation for cellular respiration:
    • 6CO2 + C6H12O6 -----> 6CO2+ 6H2O + Energy
    • oxygen and sugar ---> carbon dioxide, water and energy
  25. 2 types of anaerobic respiration:
    alcohol and Lactic acid

    Alcohol applies to Bacteria and Lactic Acid applies to humans
  26. what happens in Photosynthesis:
    • The Granum absorbs water and light and converts it into energy and oxygen 
    • The broken H+ is given to NADP and ADP making it into NADPH and ATP
    • then it goes to the Calvin Cycle (in the stroma) where it takes CO2 , NADPH and ATP and spins 6 times, to produce 1 molecule of sugar.
  27. where is the Stroma, Granum, Thylakoid, and chlorophyll
     chlorophyll is inside the chloroplast
  28. what happens during Cellular respiration:
    • Glycolysis:
    • glucose gets broken down into Pyruvic acids
    • 2 ATPs are formed

    • regenerates NAD+ so glycolysis can continue
    • Equation:
    • Lactic acid:
    • Pyruvic acid + NADH ----> Lactic acid + NAD+
    • Alcohol:
    • Pyruvic acid + NADH ---> alcohol+ CO2+NAD+
    • If Oxygen is Present:

    The Pyruvic Acids go to the Krebs Cycle where the carbon comes off, giving and H to an NAD and turning the C into CO2

    The 2 Carbon atoms are called Acetyl Co-A 

    Then the Acetyl-CoA joins a 4 carbon compound making it Citric Acid.

    The citric acid then loses one carbon, (again charging one NAD with an H) creating a 5 carbon atom

    Then the 5 carbon atom loses one carbon, again charging an NAD with H, creating more CO2 and forming an ATP, and a 4 carbon compound that repeats itself turning into citric acid when combined with Acetyl-CoA

    • 2 ATPs created
    • Electron Transport Chain:

    The NADH that has been charged comes and drops the H+ ions off where the ATP synthase shoots them out creating ATP

    • Total you have: 36 ATPs created
  29. DNA Polymerase
    joins individual nucleotides to produce a DNA molecule
  30. Cell cycle
    • G1- cell growth
    • S- cell DNA replicates
    • G2- Prepares for mitosis
    • M- Cell Division
  31. if the parent cell had 23 chomosomes, the 500 daughter cells will have ____ chromosomes
  32. main causes of cancer
    smoking, UV exposure, genetics
  33. Diploid and Haploid
    Haploid: Sperm and egg, contain 23 chromosomes each and they make a

    Diploid- which contains 46 chromosomes
  34. biological molecules:
    What is their molecules consistency
    what is an example:
    Nucleic Acids
    • Carb:
    • Sugar
    • CHO 1:2:1 ratio

    • Lipids:
    • Fats/ oils
    • (saturated- solid, Unsaturated- liquid)
    • the saturated is full out straight
    • and the unsaturated has a bend on the end of the fatty acid chain, because it has a double carbon bond.

    • Proteins: CHON
    • amino acids

    • Nucleic Acids: CHONP
    • DNA and RNA
  35. 96% of a Human Body is composed of
    • Oxygen, Carbon, Hydrogen and Nitrogen
    • (CHON)