Module 8

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Module 8
2013-12-20 22:02:05
apologia general science
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  1. index fossils
    fossils considered to represent a certain period in earth's past
  2. geological column
    a theoretical picture in which layers of rock from around the world are meshed together into a single, unbroken record of earth's past
  3. the theory  of evolution
    a theory which states that all of life on this earth has a single, common ancestor that existed a long time ago
  4. how are index fossils used by geologist?
    • geologist use index fossils to tell what time period the layer of rock represents
    • **If a geologist finds index fossils for the Cambrian time period in a layer of rock, for example, the geologist says that the layer of rock was laid down during Cambrian times.
  5. explain in your own words, how the geological column is constructed.
    The geological column is constructed by comparing levels layers of rock found in various parts of the earth. Using index fossils and the Principle of Superposition, geologists order the layers into one, big column which represents all of the earth's geological history.
  6. is it possible to go somewhere in the world and see all major layers of the geological column in one geological formation?
    No.  The geological column is not something that exists somewhere in the world.  It is a construct based on uniformitarian assumptions.
  7. according to the uniformitarian view which creatures lived on the earth first trilobites or fish
    trilobites  *Since trilobites are lower on the geological column, uniformitarians assume that trilobites existed on earth before fish.
  8. if paleontologist finds only fossil algae in a layer of rock roughly how old does the geologist think the rocks are?
    older than 570 years old or older  * When only algae are found in a layer of rock, the geological column says that the rock is assumed sot be Precambrian, which is assumed to be 570 millions years old or older.
  9. a geologist formation with two layers of rock is studied. one fossils have only animals and the other only have fish. which one should be on the bottom and which should be on top?
    fish on bottom mammals on top *According to the geological column, fish came before mammals.  This means the layer with only fish must be the older layer.
  10. why is the geological column considered evidence for evolution?
    according to the geological column there seems to be progression in plants and animals that lived in the earths past
  11. why is the geological column not really evidence for evolution?
    the geological column is a theoretical structure, it dose not exist.  Since it is constructed with assumptions, the evidence is only good if the assumptions are valid.
  12. what does the data from mount Helen tell us about stratified rocks.
    stratified rock can be laid down in less than a day
  13. If you see a canyon with a river flowing at the bottom of it, should you assume that the river eroded the canyon?
    no  *The only time we have actually abserved a canyon form, it formed as the result of a catastrophe and then the river formed.  Thus, the data from Mt. St. Helens tells us that canyons cause rivers, not that rivers cause canyons.
  14. on the geological scale was the Mt. Helen eruption a major catastrophe? What does that tell you about the kinds of geological formations that can be formed in a major catastrophe?
    no. the geological formations of mt. Helen are limited compared to the geological features that would be formed by a serious catastrophe.  *This tells us that a major catastrophe would most likely result in larger deposits of stratified rocks and larger canyons.
  15. what did the Mt. Helens eruption have that a major flood would also have?
    The Mt. St. Helen eruption had mudflows.  These mudflows caused most of the geological features that have been studied, and a major flood would also have such mudflows.
  16. what is so important about the Cumberland bone cave when it comes to the question of uniformitarianism verses catastrophism
    The Cumberland Bone Cave is a fossil graveyard that contains many fossils from several different climates.  This is important because it is excellent evidence for a worldwide flood and is a major problem for the uniformitarian viewpoint because it is not something that can be well explained in terms of uniformitarian assumption.
  17. Do fossils require millions of years to form?
    no  *Fossilized hats, pliers, and waterwheels tell us that fossils can form rapidly.
  18. what is paraconformity?
    a paraconformity is an unconformity that does not really exist in a geological formation but uniformitarians believe must exist because of the fossils found in the formation.
  19. list 4 problems with uniforitarianism
    • 1.  There are too many fossil in the fossil record.
    • 2.  Fossil graveyards with fossils from many different climates are hard to understand in the uniformitarian view.
    • 3.  Index fossils are called into question by the many creatures we once thought were extinct but now know are not.
    • 4.  Uniformitarians must assume the existence of paraconformities.
  20. what are 3 problems with catasrophisim?
    Catastrophists have offered no good explanation for the existence of unconformities between rock layers laid down by flood.  They also cannot explain certain fossil structures that look like they were formed under "normal" living conditions which would not exist during the flood.  Finally, they have not yet explained the enormous amount of limestone that exists all over the world in terms of Noah's flood.
  21. why does the fossil offer no  evidence for evolution
    because the fossil record shows god made everthing individually
  22. why does the fossil  record offer evidence for the idea that God created each plant an animal individually?
    thr fossil record shows God created us each sepratly