History II CLEP 1
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What was Johnson's first action of the reconstruction?
Appointed governors who called constitutional conventions.
In order to rejoin the Union Johnson made what mandates for state constitutions in order for them to be ratified and allowed to be represented in congress?
They had to outlaw slavery and repudiate secession
Under Johnson's plan the states were allowed back into the congress to be represented. When congress reconvened in Dec. 1865 what was their response?
The would not allow the rejoined state representatives to be seated and appointed a joint committee to reexamine the Reconstruction Policy
The republican's took charge of the Reconstruction policy after Johnson took what action?
Tried to veto an extension of the Freedman's Bureau and a civil rights bill (both would later be passed over his veto)
In 1868, this amendment had 4 provisions
- 1. Born or naturalized in the US, you are a citizen
- 2. If a state denied any male over 21 the right to vote, outside of committing crimes or rebellion, the state would lose representation proportionately
- 3. Those who took the constitutional oath and rebelled were not allowed to take office
- 4. Confederate debt was null and void
What were the 4 major elements of the Reconstruction Act of 1867?
- 1. Division of the South into 5 military districts until govt was established
- 2. Confederate leaders couldn't vote until new constitutions were ratified
- 3. Blacks guaranteed vote in constitutional convention and all subsequent elections
- 4. Southern states were required to ratify the 14th amendment and their constitutions which were to be approved by congress
What amendment was adopted in 1870 and what was it's purpose?
15th. states that no citizen could be denied the right to vote based on race, color, or previous condition of servitude
Which act of the Reconstructive policy nearl caused Johnson to be impeached?
Tenure of Office act. After he dismissed Edward M Stanton he was indicted by the house and the senate fell one vote short of impeachment
Northern immigrants to the South became known as what?
Carpetbaggers, accused of looting the state treasuries
Southerners who cooperated with the republicans were known as what?
After 1867 this organization introduced a campaign of terror aimed at intimidating blacks and their republican allies.
Ku Klux Klan
By 1870 what three states were back under conservative control?
Tennessee, Virginia, and North Carolina
What arm of the government operated over 4000's schools, founded Howard University, and the Missionary association which created Fisk and Atlanta Universities?
During reconstruction blacks formed their own churches but economically they turned to what because they had little money?
Describe sharecropping during the Reconstruction.
It began that the landowner provided the land, seed, and supplies in return for a portion, at first this was usually half, of the crop. Later land owners would manipulate the system so that the sharecroppers would perpetually be in debt.
What pushed southern agriculture into a depression during the reconstruction?
Declining cotton prices
This president, elected 1868, wanted to avoid confrontation with the south and began the weakening of the Reconstruction.
What act of 1872 pardoned all but 500 former confederates?
The Amnesty Act
What effect did the Amnesty Act have on the Democratic party?
By what year had the Democrats regained control of the house after the Civil war?
By January of 1876 how many of the 11 former confederate states were back under the control of the democrats?
What was the crime of '73?
Congress voted that greenbacks be converted back to gold after 1878.
What was the significance of the election of 1876?
Dem. Samuel J. Tilden was 1 vote short of Republican Hayes because of disputes over 19 votes in LA, SC, FL, and OR. Electoral commission chose Hayes and Reconstruction ended
Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner belonged to what political ideology?
The Radical Republicans
What was the Agenda of the Radical Republicans?
- 1. Punish the South for the Civil War
- 2. Protect the rights of the slaves
The goal of this radical republican was to focus on economic opportunities for former slaves. He was so set in his belief of racial equality that he planned to buried in a cemetery next to an African-American.
This radical republican supported a program that would distribute land to blacks.
In 1857 prior to the civil war U.S. Congressman and Radical republican Charles Sumner made a speech criticizing slavery and slaveholders in general. Who took offense to his speech and beat him with a cane?
At what point did the Johnson lose control of reconstruction and the Congress took over?
After his impeachment trial(1868)
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