replaced tribal ownership of property with individual ownership of property and most of the property ended up in white hands
Instead of the policy of being forced onto reservations the Indian Rights Association argued for a policy of what?
In 1881 who was the Author of what book that dramatically recounted the white mistreatment of Indians?
Helen Hunt Jackson's "A Century of Dishonor"
What act enabled private citizens to purchase 160 acre plots at a low price?
Timber and Stone Act (1878)
How did lumber and mining companies take advantage of the Timber and Stone Act?
They financed individuals to purchase land under the act and then the individual would turn the land over to the company
What factors brought the end of the open-range cattle industry in the Great Plains?
1. Farmer's and Sheep herder's invaded the Great Plains
2. The invention of barb-wire by Joseph Gliddon
3. Blizzards of 1885-86 and 1886-87 and the droughts in between
Who invented barbed-wire?
Joseph Glidden (1873)
What act provided a free 160 acre tract of land for those who agreed to cultivate it for 5 years?
The Homestead Act (1862)
What act offered 160 acres in land if the owner would plant a quarter of it in trees?
The Timber Culture Act (1873)
The act provided potential irrigators with a 640 acre tract for a low down payment of 25 cents an acre.
The Desert Land Act (1877)
When was the first trans-continental railroad completed?
May 10, 1869, it began construction in 1862
Where did the transcontinental railroad meet?
What stretch of the transcontinental railroad was built by the Union Pacific?
From Omaha to Utah
What stretch of the transcontinental railroad was built by the Central Pacific?
From Sacramento, CA to Omaha, NE
Between the civil war and 1880 the number of farms doubled but the number of landowners stayed the same. Why was this?
Because landowners increasingly began leasing their land
This system allowed merchants to advance credit to farmers for a portion of the upcoming crop and resulted in overcharges and permanent indebtedness.
Crop lien system
What term is used to describe the state of farmers who worked to pay off the debt of previous crop failures or loses
Why did farmers increasingly start to depend on cash crops instead of food crops?
Because the crop lien system had them in bad debt and they needed to make the most they could to pay the debt down
What 1911 event that killed 146 mostly women workers exemplified the dangerous conditions most industrial workers endured?
New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire
What labor Union began in 1866 and disintegrated in 1877 because of widespread strikes that were suppressed by state militias and federal troops?
The National Labor Union
What labor Union was established in 1860 and expanded greatly under elected grand master Terence Powderly in 1879?
The Knights of Labor
What Union recruited all workers, not just skilled workers, and sought to replace competitive capitalism with cooperatives?
The Knights of Labor
What was the peak membership of the Knights of Labor Union which came in 1886?
What caused many to leave the Knights of Labor Union?
Terence Powderly called of the railroad strikes even after the railroads had made no concessions, this caused some that wanted more militant action to leave
This labor demonstration in Chicago on May 1, 1886 led to a bombing three days later when a confrontation between police and labor organizations ensued. Many were injured and 7 policemen died.
The Haymarket Riot
What event led the public to fear that radicals influence on labor was growing?
The Haymarket Riot, because eight of the men convicted for it were anarchist.
What Union, in contrast to Knights and the Anarchist, accepted capitalism and was formed by combining several craft Unions in 1886?
AFL American Federation of Labor
What labor union sought the right to collective bargaining and better hours, wages, and working conditions?
AFL American Federation of Labor
Under what man's leadership did the AFL grow to 2.5 million members by 1917?
Samuel L. Gompers
What is horizontal integration?
An attempt by a company to monopolize one product by either driving out or buying out the competition
What is vertical integration?
A companies attempt to control all the elements (raw materials, transportation, and manufacturing) involved in production of a particular product
He used the horizontal integration business model to gain control of 90% of his company's market?
John D. Rockefeller (petroleum)
Who used the vertical integration business model to gain control of the meat packing industry?
Who's classic economic theory stated that the government shouldn't intrude into the economy?
Herbert Spencer of England touted what economic POV?
What economic view was touted by American William Graham Sumner?
Lester Frank Ward attacked social Darwinism in what 1883 book?
What was the argument against Social Darwinism in Lester Frank Ward's book "Dynamic Sociology?"
Social advancement would only result from gaining increasing control over natural processes
These two economists held what view on economics?
They denied that the economy operated according to economic laws by which humans could not interfere
In 1890 this law was passed that made unreasonable actions "in restraint of trade" illegal.
The Sherman Anti-trust Act
Why was the government usually ruled against while trying to break up monopolies using the Sherman Anti-Trust act?
The language of the act was very vague
What prompted the American Protective Association's campaign to stop immigration altogether?
The large immigration of Jewish and catholic people
What act passed in 1883 banned Chinese immigration and was renewed over and over until 1943?
The Chinese Exclusion Act
What book by Jacob Riis graphically exposed the living conditions of the urban poor and called for improved housing?
How the Other Half Lives (1891)
What effect did Jacob Riis' book "How the Other Half Lives" have on government policy concerning urban living conditions?
Very little except for some laws that related to new construction
What led to the development if the Intercollegiate Athletic Association in 1906?
Controversial deaths in college football games
D.W. Griffith's moving picture film, "Birth of a Nation," was a combination of what?
Technical achievement and blatant racism
Joseph Pulitzer took advantage of what new development that allowed the printing of his newspaper "The New York World" to be done inexpensively?
The rotary press
Who copied Pulitzer's style for use in mass circulation magazines such as McClure's Ladies Home Journal, and Saturday Evening Post?
William Randolph Hearst
What was the "City Machine?"
political organizations that used the cities services to acquire power and wealth. Provided jobs and legal help in return for votes
Structural changes to city governments in the beginning in the 1890's such as city-manager and commission forms of government and non-partisan city wide elections sought to do what?
Destroy the "City Machine"
Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch were advocates of what?
These advocates of the "Social Gospel" sought to apply Christian principles to labor management relationships.
Washington Gladden and Walter Rauschenbusch
What two women led the settlement house movement that provided a wide range of services to the urban poor and began the modern social work profession?
Jane Addams and Florence Kelley
What women engaged the political system pushing for such things as public playgrounds, public health programs, and building safety codes?
Jane Addams and Florence Kelley
When either the Republicans or the Democrats needed a political edge sometimes they would bring up war memories. This was referred to what?
Waving the bloody shirt
The scandals in the Grant administration spurred civil service reform which eventually led to the formation of what?
The National Civil Service Reform League (1881)
After a disgruntled job seeker shot President Garfield in 1881 what act was passed that created a system of competitive examinations for about 10% of government job?
The Pendleton Civil Service Act (1882)
What urged the government to pass the Interstate Commerce Act (1887)?
Differences in shipping prices which usually favored large shippers which caused various groups including farmers to demand government regulation
What greatly weakened the Interstate Commerce Act 1887?
Against the democrat's political views the protective tariffs created a surplus in the federal treasury. Despite the Democrats opposition what protective tariffs were established in 1890 and 1897 that both raised the rates
Mckinley Tariff (1890) and the Dingley Tariff (1897)
What two organizations combined to for the National American Woman Suffrage Association in 1890?
The National Woman Suffrage Association and the American Woman Suffrage Association
The woman suffrage organizations had made what progress by 1890?
They achieved the right to vote in school elections in 19 states and on tax and bond issues in 3
Between what period was the power of the presidency eclipsed by the power of congress?