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What does the pulmonary system do?
Allows the body to breathe by exchanging gases with the environment.
What happens during inspiration (inhalation) and what is the purpose of it?
Air is taken into the lungs to bring needed oxygen into the body
What happens during expiration (exhalation) and what is the purpose of it?
Air leaves the lungs and re-enters the environment and eliminates carbon dioxide (a by-product of metabolism) from the body
How does air enter the pulmonary system?
Through the nose and mouth
What advantage does breathing through the nose provide?
Warming the air and removing many air-borne particles that may cause irritation or infection
Why should you breathe through the mouth during exercise?
Required to accomodate the increased rate and depth of ventilation
What is the pharynx and where is it located?
- The throat;
- Joining of the passageways through the nose and mouth
Describe the passage of air through the body, from mouth/nose to lungs
- 1) Enters through mouth/nose and passes into pharynx (throat)
- 2) Passes through larynx (voice box) via glottis before entering the cartilage-lined trachea (wind-pipe)
- 3) Trachea branches off to from two bronchi, each leading into one of the two lungs located within thoracic cavity
What are the features of the lungs? Describe them
- Bronchi (lead into the lungs);
- Bronchioles (divide from bronchi to form numerous bronchioles);
- Alveoli (located at the end of each bronchiole is this cluster)
What do alveoli do?
Exchange gas between the lungs and the blood travelling through the capillaries surrounding each alveolus
What happens anatomically during inhalation and how does this happen?
- Inspiratory muscles contract to expand volume of thoracic cavity;
- Diaphram moves downward toward the abdomen and external intercostal muscles pull the rib cage up and outward
How does inhalation work during exercise?
Similar to normal inhalation, but includes accessory inspiratory muscles (sternocoeidomastoid, scalenus) which contribute to expansion of rib cage by lifting upward
What happens anatomically during exhalation under resting conditions and what does this achieved?
- Expiration is passive process that involves relaxation of inspiratory muscles and consequent recoil of thoracic cavity returning lungs back to original dimensions;
- Increases pressure of gases inside the lungs, forcing air out of the body through nose and mouth
What happens anatomically during exhalation during exercise and what does this achieved?
- Exhalation becomes active process where abdomen and intercostal muscles contract to more forcefully collapse the size of thoracic cavity;
- This drives air out of the lungs
What is VE?
- Minute ventilation;
- The volume of air either inspired or expired over the course of a minute
At rest, what is the rate of VE?
What effect does exercise have on VE?
- Results in elevation of VE, where intensity determines the degree of increase.
How does a VE increase occur?
- Two phases:
- 1) Initially, a sharp increase in depth of breathing (increase VE volume)
- 2) As exercise stimulus becomes more intense, rate of breathing substantially increases. A secondary, less pronounced increase in depth of breathing becomes apparent
How much can VE increase during maximal intensity exercise? What is this response a consequence of?
- Up to 20 - 25 times higher than typical 6 L/minute resting rate;
- Consequence of:
- 1) increased Tidial volume from 0.5 L - 4 L
- 2) increased respitory rate from 12/min to 50/min
What is tidial volume?
Amount of air entering or leaving the lungs in a single breath
What effect does exercise have on energy demand as it relates to ventilation?
Energy demand rises to support exercise-induced increase in ventilation
What percentage of body's energy is expended by oxygen consumption during resting, moderate intensity exercise, and max intensity exercise?
- Rest = 3%
- Moderate = 3 - 5%
- Max = 10% in untrained and 15% in trained athletes
Does ventilation limit exercise capacity in healthy adults?
No; Exercise capacity is not limited by ventilation, nor does long-term exercise training induce adaption in ventlatory capacity
What is anaerobic threshold?
Exercise intensity at which ATP demand by working muscles can no longer be met solely by aerobic metabolism, and anaerobically produced ATP is needed to satisfy demand
How is anaerobic threshold assesed? What is this known as?
- Indirectly, by identifying a disturbance in the typically linear relationship between exercise induced increments in expired carbon dioxide (VCO2) and minute ventilation (VE).
- Known as the ventilatory breakpoint
When does the ventilatory breakpoint occur in untrained individuals? In trained endurance athlete?
- Untrained = At approximately 55% of a person's max aerobic capacity (VO2MAX)
- Trained = At appromimately 80 - 85% of a person's max aerobic capacity (V02MAX)
What is OBLA?
- Onset of blood lactate accumulation;
- Exercise intensity level where anaerobic threshold is met at which blood lactate levels rise and muscle fatigue sets in
What is part of the upper respiratory tract and lower respiratory tract?
- Upper = nose, pharynx, larynx
- Lower = trachea, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles, alveoli
Anatomy of the lung and description
- Pleural cavaties - occupied by lung
- Pleural membrane - cover lung
- Right lung - has 3 lobes: superior, middle, inferior
- Left lung - has 2 lobes: superior and inferior
- Lung Apex - extends to base of neck above first rib
- Lung Base - rests on the Diaphram
- Diaphram - respiratory muscle that separates the thoracic from the abdominopelvic cavaties
What functions does the trachea perform?
- Protect, support and maintain open airway;
- Prevent overexpansion of respiratory system
- Allow large masses of food to pass along esophagus