biol 182 exam 2 study guide ch 16 17

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biol 182 exam 2 study guide ch 16 17
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2013-12-22 13:29:32
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biology 182 sense organs endocrine system
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bccc ms wolfe a&p 2
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  1. Define Sense organ
    nervous tissue along with another tissue that enhances its respone
  2. Define Receptor potential
    electrical charge change
  3. Define Sensation
    reaches the brain causes subjective awareness
  4. Define Somatic and visceral pain
    Somatic pain-- pain from skin

    Visceral pain--pain from organs
  5. Define and differentiate between the 4 types of tongue papillae
    • 1.  FILIFORM PAPILLAE
    •      no taste buds
    •      most abundant
    •      sense texture

    • 2. FOLIATE PAPILLAE
    •     NO adults only kids
    •     sides of the tongue

    • 3. FUNGIFORM PAPILLAE
    •     shaped like mushrooms
    •     tips and sides of tongue

    • 4.  VALLATE PAPILLAE
    •      large papillae arranged in a "V" in the
    •      rear
    •      half of all taste buds
  6. Define the 5 primary taste sensations
    salty, sweet, sour, bitter and umami
  7. What are the projection pathway for taste
    • 1. facial nerve (7)- collects sensory info from
    •                        --taste buds from anterior
    •                          2/3 of tongue

    • 2. Glossopharyngeal nerve(9)-- from the
    •                        posterior 1/3

    • 3.  Vagus nerve (10) from the taste buds on
    •                         the palate,pharynx,and
    •                         epiglottis

    • 4.  Solitary nucleus-  all taste nerves project
    •                         to a site in the medulla
    •                        --relay to hypothalamus and
    •                         thalamus
  8. What is the projection pathway for smell??
    olfactory fibers to meet at cluster of giomeruli to the cerebral cortex
  9. Define Hearing
    a response to vibrating air molecules
  10. Define EQUILIBRIUM
    sense of motion, body orientation, and balance

    riside in the middle ear
  11. Define Sound
    --any audible virbration of molecules

    --can be transmitted through water, solids or air
  12. Define Pitch
    --Our sense of whether a sound is" high" (treble) or "low" (base)

    --Determined by the frequency at which to sound source, eardrum and other parts of the ear vibrate
  13. Define LOUDNESS
    perception of sound energy,intensity, or the amplitude of vibration

    expressed in decibels (dB)
  14. List the sections of the ear
    • outer
    • middle
    • inner

    **outer and middle ear are only concerned with transmitting sound to the inner ear where it is then converted nerve signal**
  15. list parts of the outer ear
    Auditory canal- passage through the temporal bone to the tympanic membrane

    *external acoustic meatus-slightly S-shaped

    *has stiff guard hairs

    *secretes earwax
  16. list parts of MIDDLE EAR
    • 1. tympanic membrane (eardrum)
    • 2. auditory tube(eustachian)

    • *contains 3 small bones and 2 small muscles
    • **malleus, incus, stapes
    • **stapeduis and tensor tympani
  17. list parts of the INNER EAR
    • 1. vestibule
    • 2. cochiea
    • 3. modiolus
    • 4. spiral organ
  18. What is the flow of sound waves through the ear  (outer to inner)
    enter the auditory canal(outer)on one side and nerve signals exit the inner ear on the other
  19. Define DEAFNESS AND THE 3 TYPES
    deafness is any hearing loss from mild to temporary to complete and irreversible

    1. CONDUCTIVE - results from any condition that interfere with the transmission of vibrations to the inner ear

    2. OTOSCLEROSIS - fusion of the auditory ossicles with each other, preventing bones from vibrating.

    3. SENSORINEURAL - death of hair cells or any nervous elements concerned with hearing
  20. What is the auditory projection pathway
    • *sensory fibers begin at the base of hair cells
    • *synapse with the 2nd order neurons in Pons
    • *synapse with the 3rd in midbrain
    • *synapse with the 4th in thalamus and go to
    •   primary auditory complex
  21. List and define the EQUILIBRIUM
    coordination, balance and orientation in 3D space

    • 2 types:
    • * static- perception of head when the body
    •              is stationary

    • *Dyanamic- perception of motion or
    •                  acceleration
  22. What are the two types of ACCELERATION
    • * Linear-- change in velocity when going in a
    •                straight line

    * Angular- change in the rate of rotation
  23. List the main accessory structures of the EYE ORBIT
    • * eyebrows
    • * eyelids
    • * conjunctiva
    • * lacrimal apparatus
    • * extrinsic eye mucles
  24. List the 3 principals components of the EYE
    3 tunics (layers) that form the wall of the eyeball

    Optical components that admit and focus light

    Neural components (Retina & Optic Nerve)
  25. List the parts of each layer of the 3 tunics
    • 1. Outer fibrous layer
    •        Sclera- white of the eye
    •        Cornea- anterior region admits light

    • 2. Middle Vascular Layer
    •         Choroid- deep layer of pigmented
    •                      tissue
    •          Ciliary body- muscular ring around
    •                      lens- supports iris
    •          Iris- adjustable diaphragm that
    •                      controls diameter pupil

    • 3. INNER LAYER--retina
    •                         beginning of optic nerve
  26. List the OPTICAL COMPONENTS OF THE EYE
    • * transparent elements that admit light rays,
    •    bends (refract) them, and focus images on
    •    the retina

    •    **cornea
    •        Aqueous humor-serous fluid
    •        Lens-suspended behind pupil
    •        Vitreous body-transparent jelly that
    •                    fills that space behind the
    •                    lens
  27. List the NEURAL COMPONENTS OF THE EYE
    • *Retina--cup shaped growth of the
    •              diencephalon(part of the brain)
    •            --transparent membrain attached to
    •              the eye at two points
    •            --examined with an ophthalmoscope

    *Optic nerve
  28. Deine EMMETROPIA
    state in which the eye is relaxed and focused on an object more than 6 m away

    • ***light rays coming from the object are
    •      essentially parallel and are focused
    •      without effort

    • ***Your eyes naturally focus on distance
    •       objects and must make an effort for
    •       close objects
  29. What is the VISUAL PROJECTION PATHWAY
    • *bipolar cells of retina are 1st order neurons
    • *Retinal ganglion cells are 2nd order neurons
    •      whose axon form optic nerve
    • *Optic tracts end in the thalamus
    • *3rd order neurons arise here and go
    •       to cerebrum (primary visual cortex)
  30. Differentiate between exocrine and endocrine
    • EXOCRINE:  releases via ducts to epithelial
    •                  surface  Extracellular effects

    • ENDOCRINE:  ductless release into blood
    •                     stream  Intracellular effects
  31. List the differences and similarities of the
    NERVOUS AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS
    • Differences: NERVOUS
    •                   quick, local, neurotransmitters

    •                   ENDOCRINE
    •                   hormones, widespread, slow

    • Similarites:  some have both Neuro and
    •                   hormones, overlapping effects
    •                   regulate each other
    •                   specialized receptors on cells
  32. List the anterior pituitary hormones
    (adenohypophysis)
    • 1. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
    • 2. Luteinizing hormone   (LH)
    • 3. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
    • 4. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
    • 5. Prolactin (PRL)
    • 6. Growth hormone (GH)
  33. List the posterior pituitary hormones
    (neurohypophysis)
    • 1. Antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
    • 2. Oxytocin(OT)
  34. Define the negative feedback inhibition
    • Pituitary stimulates another endorcrine gland,
    • that glands secretes it hormone,
    • hormone feeds back to the ptiuitary or hypothalamus to inhibit further production
  35. List the main function and hormone of the PINEAL GLAND
    • * part of the epithalamus
    • *larger in children, shrinks with age
    •   peaks at 1-5 yrs, decreases by 75% by
    •   puberty
    • *synthesizes melatonin at night from
    •   serotonin
    •   --may regulate puberty
    •   --linked to mood disorders
  36. List the main function of the THYMUS
    **in 3 systems endocrine, lymphatic and immune

    • **bilobes gland in the mediastinum,superior
    •     to heart

    • **site of maturation of T cells
    •     important for immune defense
  37. List the functions and hormones of the
    THYROID GLAND
    • **largest endocrine gland
    • **lies adjacent to trachea, below larynx
    •    butterfly shape
    • **Produces T4 & T3 which collectively make
    •    thyroid hormone (TH)
    • **primary effect:increase metabolic rate
    • **as produces calcitonin which stimulates
    •     osteoblast activity
  38. List the hormone of the PARATHYROID GLAND
    • Secrete PTH (PARATHYROID HORMONE)
    • ** Increases blood calcium
  39. List the hormones of the ADRENAL MEDULLA
    • 1. EPINEPHRINE,
    • 2. NOREPINEPHRINE
    • 3. DOPAMINE
  40. list the 3 subgroups and 4 main hormones of the ADRENAL CORTEX
    • SUBGROUPS: mineralocorticoids
    •                    glucocorticoids
    •                    sex steroids

    • HORMONES:  aldosterone
    •                    cortisol (hydrocortisone)
    •                    androgens
    •                    estradiol
  41. List the 5 hormones of the PANCREAS
    • 1. glucagon
    • 2. insulin
    • 3. somatostatin
    • 4. pancreatic polypeptide
    • 5. gastrin
  42. Understand hormone transport and enzyme
    amplification
    TRANSPORT: hormones are HYDROPHOBIC and must bind to HYDROPHILIC transport proteins to get to blood stream

    • ENZYME AMPLIFICATION: hormones are
    •                 extremely potent, very small
    •                 stimulus can produce a large
    •                 effect
  43. Define and differentiate between up and dowm regulation
    • UP-REGULATION:  cell increases number of
    •                          hormones receptors

    • DOWN-REGULATION:  cell decreases number
    •                          of hormone receptors
  44. Define and differentiate between the 3 types of hormone interactions
    • 1. SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS:  2 or more
    •                       hormones work together

    • 2. PERMISSIVE EFFECTS:  one hormone
    •                      enhances the target organ's
    •                      response to a second

    • 3. ANTAGONISTIC EFFECTS:  one hormone
    •                     opposes the action of
    •                     another
  45. Define METABOLIC CLEARANCE RATE
    Rate of hormone removal from blood

    faster the MCR the shorter the half life
  46. List and define the 3 stages of GAS
      (GENERAL ADAPTATION SYNDROME)
    1. Alarm reacton:  initial response to stress

    2. Stage of resistance :  cortisol

    • 3. Stage of exhaustion:  homeostasis is
    •                         overwhelmed, protein break
    •                         down
  47. Define DIABETES MELLITUS
    Disruption of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from the hyposecretion or inaction of insulin
  48. What are the main signs and symptoms of
    DIABETES MELLITUS
    • 3 POLYS
    •    1. POLYURIA: excessive urine
    •    2. POLYDIPSIA:  excessive thirst
    •    3. POLYPHAGIA:  excessive hunger

    3 FURTHER SIGNS

    •    1. HYPERGLYCEMIA: elevated blood sugar
    •    2. GLYCOSURIA: glucose in urine
    •    3. KETONURIA : ketones in urine
  49. Define Type 1 Diabetes mellitus
    • *5-10% if cases in US
    • *Treated with insulin, diet monitoring sugars
    • *diagnosed before 30 (can occur later)
    • *can be genetically susceptible
  50. Define Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
    • *90-95%of all diabetes cases
    • *insulin resistance
    • *risk heredity, obesity,ethnicity
    • *develops slowly found after 40
    • *treat, weight loss and exercise
    • *oral medication

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