biol182 exam 3 ch 18 19 20

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gizett
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biol182 exam 3 ch 18 19 20
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2013-12-23 10:08:13
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blood heart vessel circulation
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bccc ms wolfe a&p2
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  1. list the components of the Circulatory System
    • blood
    • vessels
    • heart
  2. Differentiate blood serum from plasma
    Serum is lacking FIBRINOGEN(protein for blood clotting)

    **is the fluid after blood clots
  3. List the 3 blood plasma proteins
    • 1. Fibrinogen
    • 2. Albumin
    • 3. Globulins
  4. Define Viscosity
    • resistance of a fluid to flow
    • *thickness or stickiness

    **whole blood is 4-5X more viscous than water due primarily to RBC's
  5. Define Osmolarlity
    Total molarity of dissolved particles that cannot poss through the vlood vessel wall

    **regulated in blood by sodium ions,proteins, and RBC's
  6. List the functions and main characteristics of ERYTHROCYTES
    • **red blood cells
    •     1. pick up oxygen
    •     2. pick up carbon dioxide

    • characteristics:
    •    most abundant
    •    critical to survival
    •    internal structures
    •    anaerobic fermentation
  7. How many oxygen can Hemoglobin molecules carry?
    4
  8. What is the basic life cycle of the RBC
    • * lives about 120 days
    • **production takes about 3-5 days
    • ** 4 stages
    •     Reduction in cell size(stem->erythroblast)
    •     Increase in cell #(erythroblast multiply)
    •     synthesis of hemoglobin
    •     loss of nucleus and organelles
    • ***now becomes a reticulocyte as it leaves the bone marrow
    • ****1-2 days in blood stream becomes mature
  9. Define and differentiate between the different types of ANEMIA
    **DEFICIENCY OF RBC'S

    • 3 main categories
    •    1. inadequate erythropoiesis or Hgb
    •        synthesis
    •    2.  hemorrhagic anemia from bleeding
    •    3.  Hemolytic anemia from RBC destruction


    •   ***can result form kidney failure, hormone from kidneys are needed for RBC production
    • ****Nutritional anemia--iron-deficiency
    • *****pernicious anemia-deficiency of B12
    • *****Hypoplastic anemia-decline in RBC
    • ******Aplastic anemia_complet stop of RBC
  10. name the 5 types of WBC (white blood cells)
    • Granulocytes
    •   1. Neutrophils- bacterial infection
    •   2. Eosinophils- parasitic infection
    •   3. Basophils- chickenpox,sinusitis,diabetes

    • Agranulocytes
    •   4. Lymphocytes-immune infections
    •   5. Monocytes- viral infections-largest
  11. List the functions of platelets
    • * secrete vasoconstrictors
    • * can stick together to form platelet plugs
    • * secrete clotting factors
    • * initiate clot dissolving enzymes
    • * secrete chemicals to attract wbc to sites
    •    of inflammation
    • * internalize and destroy bacteria
    • * secrete growth factors
  12. List the 3 steps of HEMOSTASIS
    • 1. Vascular spasm-constriction of broken
    •               blood vessels

    • 2. Platelet Plug formation-reduces or stops
    •               bleeding

    3.  Coagulation-clotting of blood
  13. List the components of the
    CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM
    • HEART
    • VESSELS

    **no blood**
  14. List and define the 2 divisions of the
    CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM  and know their basic pathways
    • 1. PULMONARY CIRCUIT-blood to lungs
    •     **right side receives blood
    •     **pumps into large artery
    •     **pulmonary truck-left/right pulm arteries
    •     **to lungs CO2 unloaded,O2 picked up
    •     **return to heart
    • 2. SYSTEMIC CIRCUIT- blood to organs
    •    **oxygen rich blood (left side of heart)
    •    **leaves via aorta->aortic arch->
    •    **travels to thoracic & abdominal cavities
    •   **arteries -> organs in the body
    •   **returns to right side of heart
    •       via two large veins
    •       superior and inferior vena cava
  15. Name the 4 chambers of the heart
    • 1. 2 superior
    •     1. right atria
    •     2. left atria

    • 2. 2 inferior
    •     1.  right ventricle
    •     2.  left ventricle
  16. Name the 4 valves of the heart
    • 1.  Atrioventricular (AV)
    •     1.  right AV  tricuspid
    •     2.  left AV  bicuspid or mitral

    • 2.  Semilunar
    •     1.  Pulmonary valve(right ventricle to
    •          pulmonary trunk)
    •     2.  Aortic valve(left ventricle to aorta)
  17. List the blood flow through the Chambers
    • returns from body via superior & inferior vena cava
    • ->right atrium
    • ->right AV Valve
    • ->right Ventricle --blood ejected
    • ->pulmonary Valve
    • ->pulmonary trunk(gas exchange lungs)
    • ->pumonary veins (empties into )
    • ->left atruim
    • ->left AV valve
    • -> left Ventricle
    • ->ejects blood to aortic valve
    • ->then through the body
  18. List the characteristics of CARDIOCYTES
    (cardiac muscle)
    • * Short , thick
    • * one Nucleoulus
    • * striated
    • * involuntary (auto rhythmic)
    • *Fibrous
  19. Define the conduction system and process of it
    coordinates the heartbeat

    • *process
    • SA node fires-initiates each beat (start)
    • Right Atruim
    • AV node fires- After beat
    • heart tissue
  20. List the different types if CARDIAC RYTHUMS
    1. sinus--normal-triggered by SA node

    • 2. ectopic focus--any region spontaneous
    •             firing NOT caused by SA node
    •             (when it should not be)

    • 3. nodal-- Spontaneous firing from the
    •             AV node (bradycardia 40-50 beats)
    •             (most common ectopic focus)
  21. Define Pressure and resistance
    **pressure--causes fluid to move

    **resistance--opposes flow of fluid
  22. List the phases of the cardiac cycle and what happens in each
    • 1. VENTRICULAR FILLING--expand open
    •                    and filling

    • 2. ISOVOLUMETRIC CONTRACTION--
    •                  atria repolarize and relax,
    •                  ventricles depolarize

    • 3. VENTRICULAR EJECTION--
    •                  ejecting blood out, semilunar
    •                  valves open

    • 4.  ISOVOLUMETRIC RELAXATION--
    •                   ventricular diastole (relaxing)
  23. Define CARDIAC OUTPUT  (CO)
    amount of blood ejected by each ventricle in one minute
  24. Define CARDIAC RESERVE
    Difference between the max and resting cardiac output
  25. List and define the 3 variables in
    STROKE VOLUME
    • 1.  PRELOAD -- amount of tension BEFORE
    •                       it contracts

    2.  CONTRACTILITY-- how HARD it contracts

    • 3.  AFTER LOAD-- blood pressure in aorta &
    •                       pulmonary trunk immediately
    •                       distal to the semilunar
    •                       valves
  26. What are the 3 categories of blood vessels?
    1.  ARTERIES-carry blood away from heart

    2. VEINS- carry blood back to the heart

    • 3. CAPILLARIES- connect the smallest
    •                   arteries to the smallest veins
  27. List the 3 tunics of the vessel wall and function of each
    • 1.  TUNICA INTERNA--lines blood vessels & is
    •                  exposed to blood
    •                  repels RBC & platelets from
    •                  adhering

    • 2.  TUNICA MEDIA --consists primarily of
    •                  smooth muscle
    •                  vasomotion=chg in diameter of
    •                  vessels

    • 3. TUNICA EXTERNA--loose connective tissue
    •                 anchors blood vessels
  28. List the 3 classes of ARTERIES
    KNOW order of size
    • 1. CONDUCTING  -- large elastic
    •           ex:aorta,pulm trunk

    • 2. DISTRIBUTING -- medium,muscular
    •          ex: brachial, femoral

    3. RESISTANCE -- small
  29. List the 3 types of ARTERIAL SENSE ORGANS and their functions
    • 1. CAROTID SINUSES--baroreceptors
    •         (pressure sensors) in walls of carotid
    •         artery

    • 2. CAROTID BODIES--chemoreceptors
    •         (chemical sensors) in branches of
    •         internal carotid artery

    • 3. AORTIC BODIES--same function as carotid
    •         bodies, on wall of aortic arch
  30. List the 3 types of CAPILLARIES
    MAIN CHARACTERISTICS
    ORDER OF SIZE
    • 1. CONTINUOUS-everywhere , most tissue,
    •          passage of small solutes

    • 2. FENESTRATED- organs that need rapid
    •            absorption, small solutes
    •            ex. kidneys,small intestines

    • 3. SINUSOIDS- allows for passages of large
    •            solutes, found in liver,bone marrow
    •            spleen
  31. List the 5 types of VEINS.

    IN ORDER OF SIZE
    1. POSTCAPILLARY VENULES--smallest

    2. MUSCULAR VENULES--

    3. MEDIUM VEINS

    4. VENOUS SINUSES

    5. LARGE VEINS
  32. Define the portal system
    blood flows through two consecutive capillary networks before returning to the heart.
  33. Define  ANASTOMOSIS
    point where two blood vessels meet
  34. Define ARTERIOVENOUS ANASTOMOSIS
    (shunt) where blood flows directly from an artery to a vein and bypasses the capillaries
  35. Define BLOOD PRESSURE

    how it is measured and recorded
    ** the force that the blood exerts against a vessel wall

    • **measure by --systolic--ventricular contract
    •                     --diastolic--Ventricular relax

    **recorded by--systolic/diastolic
  36. Define SYSTOLIC AND DIASTOLIC
    SYSTOLIC--peak arterial pressure attained during ventricular contraction

    DIASTOLIC--minimal arterial pressure during ventricular relaxation
  37. Define PULSE PRESSURE
    difference between systolic and diastolic

    **measure of stress exerted on small arteries by pressure surges generated by the heart**
  38. Define MAP  (MEAN ARTERIAL PRESSURE)
    it is the average of the blood pressure of serveral measurements during the cardiac cycle
  39. Define PERIPHERAL RESISTANCE
    Opposition to flow that the blood encounters in vessels away from the heart
  40. What are the 3 variables affecting peripheral resistance?
    • 1. Viscosity--decreased ->speeds up flow
    •                   increased ->slows flow

    • 2. Vessel length longer->slower
    •                        shorter->faster

    • 3. vessel radius--larger ->faster
    •                         small ->slower
    •      **most powerful influence over flow
  41. Define AUTOREGULATION
    the ability of tissue to regulate their own blood supply
  42. Define ANGIOGENESIS
    growth of new blood vessels
  43. Define CAPILLARY EXCHANGE

    LIST the 3 main routes
    • two way movement of fluid across capillary walls
    • **most important blood in the body is in the
    •    capillaries

    • 1. endothelial cell cytoplasm
    • 2. intercellular cleft
    • 3. filtration pores
  44. Define EDEMA

    LIST 3 main causes
    accumulation of excess fluid

    • 1. increase capillary filtration
    • 2. reduced capillary reabsorption
    • 3. obstructed lump drainage
  45. List the mechanisms for venous return
    • 1. pressure gradient--B/P most important
    • 2. gravity --drains from head and neck
    • 3. skeletal muscle pump-limbs contract,squeez
    • 4. thoracic pump-inhalation force upward
    • 5. cardiac suction-expanding of atrial space
  46. Define CIRCULATORY SHOCK
    Any state in which cardiac output is insufficient to meet the body's metabolic needs
  47. What are the two categories of
    CIRCULATORY SHOCK
    • 1. CARDIOGENIC SHOCK--heart pump problem
    •            ex heart attach, MI

    • 2. LVR- low venous return--not enough blood
    •            returning to the heart
    •            ex hypovolemic shock (most common)
  48. List the major branches of the aorta and where on the body they supply
    • 1. ASCENDING AORTA--right & left coronary
    •            arteries supply heart

    • 2. AORTIC ARCH--brachiocephalic
    •            right common- right head
    •            right subclavian-shoulder,upper limb
    •            left common- left head
    •            left subclavian- shoulder ,upper limb

    • 3. DESCENDING AORTA-
    •            thoracic aorta above diaphragm
    •            abdominal aorta below diaphragm
  49. list the major arteries and veins of the head ,neck, thorax, and upper limbs
    • 1. arteries of the head and neck--
    •       carotid divides into internal & external
    • 2. veins of the head and neck--
    •       internal->brain (jugular receives)
    •       external->external head(jugular drain)
    •       upper limb-> drained by subclavian vein

    • 3. arteries of the thorax-
    •         supplies viscera & body
    •         Bronchial
    •         Esophageal
    •         Mediastina Branches
    •            Posterior intercostal
    •            Phrenic Arteries

    • 4. Arteries of Upper limb
    •         subclavian
    •         axillary
    •         brachial
    •         radial
    •         ulnar

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