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Aprox. how many people died during the Civil War?
What law provided by Lincoln was also referred to as the 10% Plan?
The Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction
After getting 10% of the voting public that were registered in 1860 what 3 requirements did the rebelling states have to meet to regain Union status?
- 1. Accept Emancipation
- 2. Swear loyalty to the Union
- 3. High ranking Confederates couldn't vote or hold office without being pardoned
Radical republicans like Thaddeus Stevens and Charles Sumner had 2 main goals for the Reconstruction which were what?
- 1. Punish the South for causing the Civil War
- 2. Fight to protect the rights of former slaves
This member of the House believed in racial equality and fought to provide economic opportunities to former slaves. He also supported a program that would redistribute land to blacks. Upon his death he requested to be buried next to African Americans.
This member of the Senate had a goal of giving citizenship/political rights to former slaves. He was beaten with a cane by Preston Brooks after giving a speech about slavery and slave holders.
Upon Lincolns death Democrat Andrew Johnson took office. Which of his actions caused the Republicans concern about his views on the Reconstruction?
- 1. Issued 13,000 pardons to confederates
- 2. Seemed unconcerned of ex-slaves rights
What established laws that caused conditions similar to slaver ex: Blacks couldn't leave plantations, restricted interracial marriage, and prohibited blacks on jury duty?
The Black Codes, ultimately ignored by Pres. Johnson
This organization established schools, provided relief, and also reunited families until Johnson vetoed funding for this particular part.
What led to Congress taking over the reconstruction of 1868?
Johnson's impeachment and near removal of office
In 1867-68 congress passed the Reconstruction Acts which required what?
- 1. Former Confederate states were occupied
- 2. States had to ratify 14th amendment to be readmitted to the Union
Why wasn't Tennessee occupied after the Reconstruction Acts in 1867-68?
Tennessee had already ratified the 14th amendment
What were the 3 important parts of the 14th amendment?
- 1. All persons born in US are citizens
- 2. Citizens are guaranteed equal treatment under law
- 3. It punished states that denied adult male the right to vote be reducing representation proportionately
The Election of Hayes over Tilden in 1876 was secured after the Compromise of 1877 which entailed what?
Reconstruction essentially ended as Hayes agreed to stop the occupation of the South
What made it so expensive to establish a trans-continental railroad?
The many geographic barriers
What were the 3 main points of the Pacific Railway Act of 1862 concerning the trans-continental railroad?
- 1. Authorized Central and Union Pacific Railways to oversee construction
- 2. To offset the cost the companies received 10(later 20) sections of land for each mile of track the built. 1 section was a square mile
- 3.Received low interest loans from $16k to $48k per mile
What 2 main points of corruption were encountered during the railroad construction?
- 1. Track was constructed quickly and sometimes had to repaired which allowed for more low interest loans
- 2. Surveyors were bribed to say that the terrain was hilly so the companies could get more per mile of construction
What made up the labor force for each of the trans-continental railroad companies?
Central Pacific - Chinese, later Mormons
Union Pacific - Irish immigrants, former slaves, and civil war vets
Where did the railroad meet at?
Promontary Point, UT
What industry created time zones?
The Rail industry 1883
What were the 3 main reasons the Buffalo population decreased to only a few thousand in the 1880's?
- 1. Killed to feed rail crews
- 2. Hunters got $1-$3 per hide
- 3. The falling numbers of the herd were thought to undermine the Indians attempts to resist US expansion
What projected number of families became landowners under the Homestead Act of 1862?
What problems did Homesteaders meet while trying to farm as they settled in the West?
- 1. Low rainfall amounts
- 2. Mosquitoes and grasshoppers
- 3. Summer heat/humidity followed by winter blizzards
- 4. Homes made of sod because there was no timber
The goal of this act was to assimilate the Indians into American society and ultimately destroy tribal identity and break up the reservations.
The Dawes Act
What were the 4 main points of the Dawes Act?
- 1. Each Indian head of household got 160 acres for cultivation or 320 for grazing.
- 2. Additional family members got 40 acres each
- 3. Land would be held in a trust for 25 years by the government.
- 4. Participation was mandatory
What was the impact of the Dawes Act?
- 1. 2/3 of tribal land was lost between 1890-1930
- 2. Left over land from the act was open to white settlement
What was the Ghost Dance?
A religious movement in the 1880's associated with the prophet Wovoka (Jack Wilson to whites)
What was the belief of the Ghost dance movement?
- Whites would die and dead Indians would return if:
- 1. Indians lived together in peace
- 2. Abandoned all white influences
- 3. Danced a particular dance
What leader of the Ghost dance was killed after his attempted arrest in Dec. 1890 causing American and Indian tension to rise?
What is referred to as the action where Sioux Indians were being rounded up on Dec. 9, 1890 which resulted in the death of 300 Indians 7 of which were infants and the death of 29 US soldiers?
Wounded Knee Massacre