biol182- exam 4 ch 21,22

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gizett
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biol182- exam 4 ch 21,22
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2013-12-23 17:35:30
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P2 lymphatic immune systems respiratory system
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bccc ms wolfe a&p 2
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  1. Define the LYMPHATIC  SYSTEM
    **is a true organ system where immune cells are especially concentrated

    **consists of a network of vessels that penetrates nearly every tissue of the body and a collection of organs and tissues that produce an immune response**
  2. Define the IMMUNE SYSTEM
    Consists of a large population of widely distributed cells that recognize foreign substances and act to neutralize or destroy them
  3. List the functions of the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
    • 1. Fluid recovery
    • 2. immunity
    • 3. lipid absorption
  4. List the components of the
    LYMPHATIC SYSTEM
    • 1. LYMPH-recovered fluid
    • 2. LYMPHATIC VESSELS-transport fluid
    • 3. LYMPHATIC TISSUE-groups of
    •          lymphocytes and macrophages
    •          that populate organs
    • 4. LYMPHATIC ORGANS-organs where these
    •          cells are highly concentrated
  5. Define LYMPH

    know its characteristics
    • clear colorless fluid
    • similar to blood plasma but low in protein
    • composition varies from place to place in body
  6. List the LYMPHATIC VESSELS

    know order smallest to largest
    • 1. capillaries
    • 2. vessels
    • 3. trunk
    • 4. ducts
  7. List the LYMPHATIC CELLS
    • 1. NK-natural killer-large attack & destroy
    •                   bacteria,host cells

    2. T cells--mature in thymus

    3. B cells-plasma cells *secrete antibodies

    • 4. MACROPHAGES- develop from monocytes
    •                large phagocytotic cells

    • 5. DENDRITIC- mobile APCs found that are
    •                the surface defense

    • 6. RETICULAR- stationary APCs that are part
    •               of the framework for lymphatic
    •               organs
  8. List the LYMPHATIC ORGANS
    characteristics and functions
    • primary --red bone marrow
    •              thymus
    •           **where immune cells become
    •              immunocompetent  B & T cells

    • secondary---lymph nodes---cleanse,B&T cell
    •                           activation
    •                  tonsils--adenoid-wall of pharynx
    •                           --palatine-oral cavity
    •                           --lingual-root of tongue
    •                                  numerous
    •                 spleen--largest,monitors blood
    •                            high vascular&vulnerable
    •                            to trauma&infection
  9. List the 3 lines of defense

    and which are specific or nonspecific
    • 1. external barriers--skin,mucous membranes
    •           non-specific

    • 2. pathogens that break through
    •           non-specific

    • 3. immune system-memory
    •            specific
  10. List each type of LEUKOCYTE

    function method & characteristics
    • 1. NEUTROPHILS- kills bacteria
    •       2 methods:simple--digestion,phagocytosis
    •                      complex--chemical cloud
    •                                killing zone

    • 2. EOSINOPHILS--found in mucous
    •              membranes,
    •               guard against parasites
    •               promote basophils
    •               limit action of histamine

    • 3. BASOPHILS- secrete chemicals that aid
    •             1. leukotrienes
    •             2. histamine
    •             3. heparin

    • 4. LYMPHOCYTES- circulating blood contains
    •             80% T cells
    •             15% B cells
    •               5% NK cells

    • 5. MONOCYTES-turn into macrophages
    •             wandering or fixed
  11. List the 2 families of antimicrobial proteins
    • 1. INTERFERONS: viruses, it alerts neighboring
    •                   cells to protect them

    • 2. COMPLEMENT: globulins that contribute
    •                  to both nonspecific resistance
    •                  and specific immunity
  12. List and define the 3 types of pathways
    • 1. CLASSICAL-needs antibody
    •                    specific immunity
    •                    antibody binds to antigen

    • 2. ALTERNATIVE- non-specific
    •                    binds directly to targets
    •                   
    • 3. LECTIN - non-specific
    •                  plasma binds to carbs
  13. List the mechanism for pathogen destruction
    • 1. inflammation
    • 2. immune clearance
    • 3. phagocytosis
    • 4. cytolysis
  14. Define IMMUNE SURVEILLANCE
    NK cells continually patrol the body for pathogens and host cells

    • NK cells binds & releases perforins
    • enter the hole and induce apoptosis(cell death)
  15. Define FEVER

    list stages
    abnormal elevation of body temperature(pyrexia)

    • 1. onset-- point rises
    • 2. stadium--stays high til pathogen is gone
    • 3. defervescence--heat losing,return to norm
  16. Define INFLAMMATION

    list general purpose, cardinal signs
    defensive response to injury

    • limit spread of pathogens
    • remove debris,tissue
    • initiate repair

    redness, swelling heat and pain
  17. List the 3 steps of inflammation
    1. mobilizaiton--get leukocytes to site quickly

    • 2. containment--prevent spreading
    •                     neutrophils are quickest to kill
    •                     bacteria

    • 3. Tissue cleanup and repair
    •                  monocytes-- arrive within 12 hrs
  18. List the two types of IMMUNITY
    • 1. CELLULAR- T cells
    •                     direct attack and destroy

    • 2. HUMORAL- B cells
    •                    antibody-mediated
    •                    Donot directly attack but tag cell
  19. List the 4 types of classifications for
    IMMUNITY
    1. Natural active- ones own T cells

    2. Artificial active- vaccination

    • 3. Natural passive- produced by another
    •                  mother to child

    • 4. Artificial passive- immune serum
    •                 snake venum  injection
  20. Define ANTIGEN  (Ag)
    any molecule that triggers an immune response
  21. Define EPITOPES
    regions of an antigen molecule that stimulate immune response
  22. steps of development of T CELLS
    birth- born in red bone marrow

    training- travel to thymus to mature

    deployment- move to the medulla of the thymus to reproduce to form clones and then migrate out to lymphatic tissues
  23. The development of the B CELLS
    Mature in the bone marrow and leave to colonize the lymphatic tissues
  24. List and define the 4 types of T CELLS
    1. cytotoxic-effector->attack  (TC)

    2. helper- promotes action    (TH)

    3. regulatory- limit immune response  (TR)

    4. memory- descend from Tc cells  (TM)
  25. Define T cell recall response
    upon re-exposure to the same pathogen later in life, memory cells mount a quick attack
  26. List an define the 4 types of
    IMMUNE SENSITIVITY
    Type 1   acute --common allergies,in seconds

    • Type 2  subacute--antibody dependent-
    •              blood transfusions,drug reactions

    • Type 3  complex subacute--trigger intense
    •              inflammation-- ex lupus

    • Type 4  delayed--cell mediated
    •              12-72 hr response after exposure
    •              ex poison ivy
  27. List the functions of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
    • 1. O2 & CO2 exchange
    • 2. speech
    • 3. sense of smell
    • 4. control pH of body fluids
    • 5. vasoconstrictor
    • 6. breathing promote the flow of lymph&venous blood
    • 7.lungs filter small clots from blood stream
    • 8. breath holding helps expel abd. contents
  28. List the principal organs of the
    RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
    • 1. NOSE
    • 2. PHARYNX,
    • 3. LARYNX
    • 4. TRACHEA
    • 5. BRONCHI
    • 6. LUNGS
  29. List the 2 divisions of the respiratory system
    • 1. Conducting --only for airflow
    •        nostrils through the major bonchioles

    • 2. Respiratory --gas exchange
    •        alveoli and some other regions
  30. List the functions and characteristics of the
    NOSE
    • functions: warms, cleanses ,humidifies
    •              inhaled air, detects odors

    bone, hyaline cartilage and dense connective tissue, nasal septum
  31. List the functions of the LARYNX
    voice box

    keeps food and drink out of the airway

    aid in production of sound
  32. Differentiate between the 2 lungs
    right  shorter with 3 lobes

    • left   taller with 2 lobes
    •         has cardiac indentiation
  33. List the parts of the bronchial tree

    smallest to largest
    terminal bronchioles

    primary bronchioles

    segmetal bronchioles

    lobar bronchi

    main primary bronchi (rt main/left main)
  34. List and define the 3 types of alveolar cells
    1. Squamous-type 1 cover 95% of surface

    2. Great-type 2 repair damage, surfactant

    • 3. Alveolar macrophages(dust cells)
    •     most numerous, digest dust molecules
  35. Define Pulmonary Ventilation and
    Respiratory cycle
    breathing

    cycle is one complete breath
  36. List and define 2 types of respiration
  37. List the 2 main respiratory muscles

    functions/characteristics
    • 1. Diaphragm- prime mover
    •                      2/3 of airflow

    • 2. Intercostal- helper
    •                      synergist to diaphragm
    •                      1/3 of airflow
  38. List and define the 3 centers for involuntary control
    • 1. ventral respiratory group (VRG)
    •     respiratory rythum

    • 2. Dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
    •     modifies the rate and depth of breathing

    • 3. Pontine respiratory group (PRG)
    •     rhythm of VRG due to sleep,exercise
  39. List and define the 4 types of sensory receptors
    • 1. Central chemoreceptors
    •       respond to pH of CSF

    • 2. Peripheral
    •       respond to O2 and CO2 in blood

    • 3. Stretch
    •       inflation of the lungs
    •  
    • 4. Irritant
    •       respond to pollen,smoke dust fumes etc
  40. List 3 factors influencing resistance airflow
    1. diameter of bronchioles-  large

    2. pulmonary compliance -- ease of expanding

    3. surface tension--reduces surface tension
  41. List and define the different respiratory volumes used in spirometry
    1. Tidal Volume--inhale,exhale in one cycle

    • 2. inspiratory reserve vol.
    •            air in excess of Vt that can be
    •             inhaled with max effort

    • 3. expiratory reserve vol.
    •           excess of Vt that can be exhaled with
    •           max effort
  42. List the variations of respiratory rhythm
    • 1. APNEA- temp cessation of breathing
    • 2. DYSPNEA-labored, gasping, sob
    • 3. HYPERPEA- increased rate, depth
    • 4. ORTHOPNEA- dyspnea that occurs when
    •                  a person is lying down
    • 5. TACHYPNEA- accelerated respiration
  43. List the factors that affect alveolar gas exchange
    • 1. pressure gradient of the gas
    • 2. solubility of the gas
    • 3. membrane thickness
    • 4. membrane area
    • 5. ventilation-perfusion coupling
  44. List the 3 main factors in O2 unloading and how they increase or decrease it
    • 1. Ambient PO2-low O2 in tissue>increase
    •                        high O2 in tissue->decrease

    • 2. Temperature-high temp->increased
    •                       low temp ->decreased

    • 3. Bohr effect--high CO2->increased
    •                      low CO2->decreased
  45. List and define the causes of HYPOXIA
    • DEFICINCY OF OXYGEN
    •  
    •  hypoxemic - low PO2  inadequate gas

     ischemic - inadequate circulation (heart fail)

     anemic - inability of blood to carry O2

    •  histotoxic- poison prevents tissue from
    •             using O2

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