Unit 1

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  1. Reasons for selecting target behaviors
    • 1. Helps individual achieve outcomes
    • 2. Behavior deficit makes the person too dependent on others.
  2. Problem with behavior
    • 1. Can't do=> Skill deficit
    • 2. Problems with strength
    • 3. Won't do
    • 4. Does, but only under limited circumstances
    • 5. Does at the wrong time or in the wrong plance
  3. Adaptive Behavior
    Those skills or abilities that enable the individual to meet standards of personal independence and responsibility that would be expected of his/her age and social group.
  4. Mastered tasks
    tasks for which the person has met the performance criteria set for the specific task within specific conditions
  5. Examples of assessments used to identify skills to target for acquistion
    • VB-MAPP
    • Essentials for Living
    • The MOVE Curriculum
  6. Discriminative Stimulus
    Antecedent stimulus correlated with availability of reinforcement. Stimulus that should, after teaching, evoke the correct or an appropriate response.
  7. SD
    Discriminative Simulus
  8. Motivating Operations
    Antecedent stimuli that may temporarily increase or decrease the value of a reinforcer and evoke behavior that has resulted in that reinforcer previously
  9. MO
    Motivating Operation
  10. Prompts
    Supplementary antecedent stimuli used to evoke a correct response in the presence of an EO or Sd that will eventually control behavior
  11. Artificial consequences and schedules
    Consequent stimuli or schedules of presentation that may result in the learner making the correct or an appropriate response more frquently
  12. Reinforcement
    The presentation or removal of a stimulus following a response, that increases (or maintains) the future frequency of that response
  13. Reinforcement should be used to
    • 1. Get behavior going
    • 2. strengthen a dimension of an already acquired skill
    • 3. keep behavior going (maintenance)
  14. Using positive reinforcement
    • 1. Identify appetitive stimuli (potential reinforcers)¬†
    • 2. Collect baseline data
    • 3. Deliver the appetitive stimulus contingent upon the target response
    • 4. Continue to collect data
  15. Using negative reinforcement
    • 1. identify aversive stimuli/conditions
    • 2. Collect baseline data
    • 3. remove the aversive conditions contingent upon the target response
    • 4. Continue to collect data
  16. Continuous (FR1) Schedules
    • 1. Consequence delivered after every response.¬†
    • 2. Typically used to build or strengthen a skill
  17. Variable schedules
    Consequences delivered after some number of responses, time, or interval. Typically used to maintain behavior over time.
  18. Pattern of behavior produced on fixed schedules
    Unsteady responding (pause and bursts)
  19. Pattern of behavior produced on variable schedules
    steady responding
  20. Ratio schedules
    produce higher rates of responding
  21. fixed ratio
    very high rates of responding
  22. Fixed interval
    scalloped responding
  23. Variable ratio
    high steady rates of responding
  24. Variable interval
    low to moderate steady rates of responding
  25. prompts may be given
    before a response begins to occur or during a response cycle to aid the performance of the behavior
  26. prompts are used
    • 1. in skill acquisition programs
    • 2. to evoke a low-probability behavior
    • 3. to evoke a chain of behavior by prompting the first step (response priming)
    • 4. to prompt behaviors incompatible with inappropriate behavior
  27. Response promts
    Operate directly on the response
  28. Types of response prompts
    • Verbal
    • Modeling
    • physical
  29. Stimulus prompts
    Operate directly on the antecedent task stimuli to cue a correct response in conjunction with the critical SD
  30. Position Cue
    Item being taught placed closer to student
  31. Movement cue
    pointing to, tapping, touching, looking at item being taught
  32. redundancy of antecedent stimuli
    one of more stimulus/response dimension paired with correct choice
  33. Gestural prompt
    response prompt if the prompt operates on the response and stimulus prompt if the prompt operates on an antecedent stimulus
  34. Fading
    technique used to gradually transfer stimulus control from supplementary antecedent stimuli (prompts) to naturally occurring EO's and/or discriminative stimuli
  35. Procedures for fading response prompts
    • Most-to-least prompts (fading out)
    • Least-to-most prompts (fading in)
    • time delay (constant of progressive)
    • graduated guidance
  36. Graduated guidance
    hand-over-hand assistance and the combined use of physical prompting and fading, resulting in a systematic gradual reduction in the intensity or intrusiveness of the physical prompt
  37. single response skill
    a single movement and can be taught without breaking in down into smaller stepts
  38. multiple response skill
    requires breaking down the skill into multiple steps or responses to effectively teach it.
  39. differential reinforcement
    providing a reinforcer when the correct or an appropriate response occurs and not doing so when it does not occur or another response occurs
  40. prompt fading
    when the correct or an appropriate response begins to occur, gradually provide less prompts and an additional level of differential reinforcement
  41. Shaping
    using differential reinforcement to produce a series of gradual changing response classes.  Reinforcement is provided when closer approximations to the correct response occurs.
  42. stimulus fading
    highlighting a physical dimension (e.g. color, size, positions) of a stimulus to increase the likelihood of a correct response
  43. Effects of stimulus faking on problem behavior
    • Functions as an abolishing operations and abates problem behavior
    • Evokes appropriate behavior
  44. Stimulus shape transformations
    Use an initial stimulus shape that will prompt a correct response
  45. task analysis
    breaking down a chain into its component responses
  46. developing a Task Analysis
    • 1. preform the task or watch someone perform the task
    • 2.write down each individual step in sequence
    • 3. perform or have someone perform a task
    • 4. according to the steps listed
  47. Types of chaining procedures
    • 1. backward chaining
    • 2. backward chaining with leaps ahead
    • 3. forward chaining
    • 4. total task chaining
  48. Forward chaining
    The responses in the chain are taught, one at a time, in the same order as they naturally occur
  49. backward chaining
    the responses in the chain are taught, one at a time, but beginning with the last step in the chain
  50. advantage of backward chaining
    the learner contacts the natural reinforcement contingencies in every learning trial
  51. Backward chaining with leaps ahead
    same as backward chaining except some steps are skipped and probed instead
  52. Advantage of backward chaining with leaps ahead
    may reduce training time
  53. Total task chaining
    all the steps are trained in the learning trial
  54. Total task chaining seems to work best with learners with an
    imitative repertoire
  55. procedures for teaching response chains
    • 1. Chaining
    • 2. Modeling
    • 3. Instructions (oral/written)
    • 4. behavioral skills training
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Unit 1
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