Care of the Patient with and Immune Disorder
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- provides a specific reaction to each invading antigen and has the unique ability to remember the antigen that caused the attack
- composed of highly specialized cells and tissues, including the thymus, the spleen, bone marrow, blood and lymph
a substance that can produce a hypersensitive reaction in the body but may not be inherently harmful
an acute and potentially fatal hypersensitivity reaction to an allergen
the process of weakening the virulence of a disease organism
disorders that entail the development of an immune response to one's won tissues; thus these disorders are failure of the tolerance to "self"
pertaining to the tissue occurring naturally and derived from the same individual
- cell mediated immunity
- the mechanism of acquired immunity characterized by the dominant role of small T cells
one of the two forms of immunity that respond to antigens, such as bacteria and foreign tissue
an abnormal condition characterized by an excessive reaction to a particular stimulus
- the quality of being insusceptible to or affected by a particular disease or condition
- two major subclasses: innate and adaptive
process by which resistance to an infectious disease is induced or increased
when a immune system responds appropriately to a foreign stimulus and the body's integrity is maintained
an abnormal condition of the immune system in which cellular or humoral immunity is inadequate and resistance to an infection is decreased
any agent or substance capable of provoking an immune response or producing immunity
study of the immune system
the administration of agents that significantly interfere with the immune systems ability to respond to antigenic stimulation by inhibiting cellular and humoral immunity
a special treatment of allergic responses that administers increasingly large doses of the offending allergens to gradually develop immunity
- body's first line of defense
- provides physical and chemical barriers to invading pathogens and protects against the external environment
- composed of the skin and mucous membranes, cilia, stomach acid, tears, saliva, sebaceous glands, and secretions and flora of the intestines and vagina
attracts macrophages to the site of infection or inflammation and prepares them for attack
the removal of plasma that contains components causing, or thought to cause, disease
reproduction or multiplication of similar forms
- most severe IgE-mediated allergic reaction
- a systemic reaction to allergens
- allergens causing anaphylaxis are: 1) venoms; 2) drugs, such as penicillin and aspirin; 3) contrast media dyes; 4) insect stings; 5) foods such as eggs, shellfish and peanuts; 6) latex and 7) vaccines
- Clinical manifestations: occurs rapidly; massive release of mediators initiates events in target organs throughout the body; skin and gastrointestinal S/S may occur, although respiratory and cardiovascular S/S predominate; fatal reactions are associated with a fall in B/P, laryngeal edema, and bronchospasm
- Assessment: Early recognition is key; patient may have fear of impending doom; urticarial, pruritis and angioedema may be present in mild and moderate anaphylaxis, pallor or cyanosis may be seen in severe reactions; upper respiratory S/S range from congestion and sneezing to edema of the lips, the tongue and the larynx with stridor and occlusion of the upper airways; lower respiratory signs and symptoms include bronchospasm, wheezing and severe dyspnea; gastro S/S nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea to dysphagia and involuntary stools; cardiovascular S/S tachycardia and hypotension, coronary insufficiency, vascular collapse, dysrhythmias, shock, cardiac arrest, respiratory failure and death.
- Medical management: immediate aggressive treatment; at first sign 0.2-0.5 mL of epinephrine 1:1000 is given sub Q for mild symptoms repeated in 20 minutes.
produces bronchodilation and vasoconstriction and inhibits the further release of chemical mediators of hypersensitivity reactions of mast cells
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