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What three terms did Freud use to explain depression in 1917?
Grief, Loss and Dependancy
What did freud say early loss resulted in?
Grief turning to anger and directed inwards as self blame. This is known as introjection of hostility
What does loss as an adult cause?
The resurfacing of feelings of loss as a child, causing depression
Give three other loss events that could cause depression
- Loss of a job
Give the 4 stages of the introjection of hostility theory
- Introjection (self blame)
How does depression occur according to the theories of inadequacy theory?
Failure to meet the excessively high standards of over-harsh parents. Whatever the child does will never be enough to please their overbearing, authoritarian parents or care givers
What did Bowlby suggest that depression was caused by in 1951 and how might this manifest itself?
- Insecure attachments in early childhood (possibly due to unloving parents)
- The individual may seek to gain approval from others to compensate for the feelings of rejection
What are the 3 components of personality
What occurs during the depressed phase of manic depression?
- The superego dominates the Ego
- This leads to extreme feelings of guilt, causing depression
What occurs during the manic phase of manic depression?
- The Id tries to control the Ego
- The Ego overreacts
What did Nietzel and Harris find in 1990?
Evidence that some depressed people are high in dependancy
State 4 personality traits that are commonly shown by depressed patients according to Klein et al (2002)
- Dependancy on others
- Belief that they must be perfect in all respects
- Low self-esteem
- Inability to express anger openly (especially to those close to them)
Give one piece of contradictory evidence to Freud's theory of depression
Depressed patients are often very outwardly angry at times whereas Fraud suggested that the anger is directed inwards
What evidence has been found regarding the parents of depressives?
Research has shown that parents of depressed patients are often cold, moralistic, demanded perfection and expected total devotion
Give one pro of psychoanalytical treatment
Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT) is almost as effective as cognitive therapy
How does the psychodynamic explanation lack scientific rigour and how might this damage its claim?
- Case studies are used which are often subjective and biased rather than quantitive data collection.
- Makes it difficult to establish good scientific claims about the influence of early childhood
What criticisms did Brown and Harris raise in 1990?
- Grief was only one factor in the development of depression.
- Other factors such as unemployment and lack of a partner also contribute
What did Davidson and Neil find in 1990?
- There is no direct evidence that depressed people interpret the loss of a loved one as desertion or rejection.
- Most people experience some form of loss as a child yet not everyone develops a mood disorder